The Hindu 7th September, 2022 Explanation

  • Acclimatization: the process or result of becoming accustomed to a new climate or to new conditions.
  • India and Bangladesh have finalised the text of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on interim water sharing of the Kushiyara river.
  • It was finalised during the 38th meeting of the ministerial-level Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) of India and Bangladesh,
  • It welcomed the finalisation of the design and location of the water intake point on Feni River to meet the drinking water needs of Sabroom town in Tripura as per the October 2019 India-Bangladesh MoU.
  • The Joint Rivers Commission of India and Bangladesh was constituted in the year 1972 as a bilateral mechanism to address issues of mutual interest on common / border / transboundary rivers.
  • The JRC is headed by Water Resources Ministers of both countries.

Hasina also announced the Mujib Scholarship on Tuesday for the direct descendants of the Indian soldiers killed or grievously injured in the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. The awards will be conferred on Wednesday, she said. The award is named after Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Hasina’s father.

Tomorrow, I will confer the Mujib Scholarship to the direct descendants of the soldiers or officers of the defence forces of India who were martyred or gravely wounded during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Tomorrow, I will confer the Mujib Scholarship to the direct descendants of the soldiers or officers of the defence forces of India who were martyred or gravely wounded during the Bangladesh Liberation War

Tributary: a river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake.

Distributory a branch of a river that does not return to the main stream after leaving it

The Kushiyara River is a distributary river in Bangladesh and Assam.

It forms on the India-Bangladesh border as a branch of the Barak River when the Barak separates into the Kushiyara and Surma.

What is riparian principle?

1 Riparian rights simply mean the rights bestowed on the people living along the banks of rivers. Riparian Rights are natural results that occur as rights because of residence in a specific. area. These are rights which belong to persons who live on a shore, bank or a river, ocean or lake. because they live there

1960: The dispute can be traced back to the Indus Water Treaty between India and Pakistan, allowing the former ‘free and unrestricted use’ of Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.

1966: Creation of Haryana from the old (undivided) Punjab presented the problem of giving Haryana its share of river waters.

For Haryana to get its share of the waters of the Sutlej and its tributary Beas, a canal linking the Sutlej with the Yamuna was planned (SYL Canal).

Punjab refused to share waters with Haryana stating it was against the riparian principle which dictates that the water of a river belongs only to the State and country or States and countries through which the river in question flows.

1981: Both states mutually agreed for the re-allocation of water.

1982: Construction of 214-km SYL was launched in Kapoori village, Punjab.

Agitations, protests and assassinations were carried out in protest creating the environment of terrorism in the state and making the issue of national security.


Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and then Akali Dal chief Sant signed an accord agreeing for a new tribunal to assess the water.

The Eradi Tribunal headed by Supreme Court Judge V Balakrishna Eradi was set up to reassess availability and sharing of water.

In 1987, the tribunal recommended an increase in the shares of Punjab and Haryana to 5 MAF and 3.83 MAF, respectively.

1996: Haryana moved the Supreme Court (SC) seeking directions to Punjab to complete the work on the SYL.

2002 and 2004: SC directed Punjab to complete the work in its territory.

2004: Punjab Assembly passed the Punjab Termination of Agreements Act, terminating its water-sharing agreements and thus jeopardising the construction of SYL in Punjab.

2016: SC started hearings into a presidential reference (Article 143) to decide on the legality of the 2004 Act and declared that Punjab backed out of its promise to share the waters of rivers. Thus, the act was termed constitutionally invalid.


SC directed the Chief Ministers of both states to negotiate and settle the SYL canal issue at the highest political level to be mediated by the Centre.

Punjab has asked for a tribunal for fresh time-bound assessment of the water availability.

Punjab holds that there has been no adjudication or scientific assessment of river waters in the state till date.

The availability of Ravi-Beas water has also come down from the estimated 17.17 MAF in 1981 to 13.38 MAF in 2013. A fresh tribunal would ascertain all this.

India will be soon releasing cheetahs from South Africa and Namibia into the wild at Kuno Palpur in Sheopur district of Madhya Pradesh.

It will initiate India’s ambitious plan of transcontinental relocation of cheetahs.

The country’s last spotted cheetah died in Chhattisgarh in 1947 and it was declared extinct in the country in 1952.

The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) some years back prepared a cheetah reintroduction project.

Communism is a political, social, and economic ideology that advocates the replacement of private ownership and profit-based economies with a classless economic system under which the means of production—buildings, machinery, tools, and labor—are communally owned, with private ownership of property either prohibited or severely limited by the state. Because of its opposition to both democracy and capitalism, communism is considered by its advocates to be an advanced form of socialism.

guerrilla: a member of a small independent group taking part in irregular fighting, typically against larger regular forces


a competitor thought to have little chance of winning a fight

a person who has little status in society:


a group of people attending or surrounding an important person

gross domestic product (GDP), total market value of the goods and services produced by a country’s economy during a specified period of time

lopsided: with one side lower or smaller than the other.

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