1st AUGUST, 2022 Explanation The Hindu

Pseudonym: a fictitious name, especially one used by an author

Gird: secure (a garment or sword) on the body with a belt or band/ prepare oneself for something difficult or challenging.

Ornate: elaborately or highly decorated.

Nascent: (especially of a process or organization) just coming into existence and beginning to display signs of future potential.

Torque: a force that tends to cause rotation.

SHEV. Series Hybrid-Electric Vehicle.

Assimilate: take in and understand fully (information or ideas)//regard as similar; liken.

tokenistic, the person doing it wants to seem like they are helping a group of people who are treated unfairly in society, but their action is not meant to make lasting changes to how those people are treated

gubernatorial: relating to a governor, particularly that of a state in the US.

Distort: give a misleading or false account or impression of.

Offing: likely to happen soon

  • Birth: Azad was born on 23rd July 1906 in the Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Early Life: Chandra Shekhar, then a 15-year-old student, joined a Non-Cooperation Movement in December 1921. As a result, he was arrested.
  • On being presented before a magistrate, he gave his name as “Azad” (The Free), his father’s name as “Swatantrata” (Independence) and his residence as “Jail”.
  • Therefore, he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar Azad.
  • Hindustan Republican Association: After the suspension of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 by Gandhi, Azad joined Hindustan Republican Association (HRA).
  • HRA was a revolutionary organization of India established in 1924 in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Ganguly as an offshoot of Anushilan Samiti.
  • Members: Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Sukhdev, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri.

Kakori Conspiracy: Most of the fund collection for revolutionary activities was done through robberies of government property. In line with the same, Kakori Train Robbery near Kakori, Lucknow was done in 1925 by HRA.

The plan was executed by Chandra Shekhar Azad, Ram Prasad Bismil, Death: He died at Azad Park in Allahabad on 27th February 1931.

Ablate: gradually remove material from or erode (a surface or object) by melting, evaporation, frictional action, etc., or erode (material) in this way.

  • Nord Stream consists of two pipelines, which have two lines each.
  • Nord Stream 1 was completed in 2011 and runs from Vyborg in Leningrad (Russia) to Lubmin near Greifswald,Germany.
  • Nord Stream 2 which runs from Ust-Luga in Leningrad to Lubmin was completed in September 2021 and has the capacity to handle 55 billion cubic meters of gas per year once it becomes operational.
  • The twin pipelines together can transport a combined total of 110 billion cubic metres (bcm) of gas a year to Europe for at least 50 years.
  • The Nord Stream crosses the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of several countries including Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany, and the territorial waters of Russia, Denmark, and Germany.
  • In Germany, the pipeline connects to the OPAL (Baltic Sea Pipeline) and NEL (North European Pipeline) which further connects to the European grid.
  • Germany’s opposition to nuclear power
  • The use of nuclear energy as a “green” alternative to fossil fuels is controversial in Germany. The Green Party has argued for decades that the environmental hazards of disposing of nuclear waste vastly outnumbered the benefits

Goa is, at present, the only state in India with a uniform civil code. The Portuguese Civil Code of 1867, which continues to be implemented after India annexed the territory in 1961, applies to all Goans, irrespective of their religious or ethnic community

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