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    Law Giri


    Everything that exists, from the Galactic Super clusters to the tiniest subatomic particles, comprises the Universe. Among the various theories on the origin of universe including the steady state and the pulsating universe theories, the one most widely accepted has been the Big Bang theory. This theory traces the origin to a primordial explosion of super-compressed cosmic matter, the explosion of super-compressed cosmic matter, the energy of which has sustained the continuous expansion of universe. However, some recent theories have questioned the very fundamentals of the Big Bang theory.

    As for the age of Universe, Galaxies that are huge congregation of gravity. Optical and radio telescope studies indicate the existence of about 100 billion galaxies in the visible universe. Galaxies occur in there structural forms: spiral, Elliptical and Irregular. Spiral galaxies have a central nucleus with great spiraling arms trailing around them. Examples include our Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies. Elliptical galaxies are without spiraling arms and Irregular ones have no clear shape.

    Stars account for most of the galactic mass. They tend to form groups called constellations. Lone stars are a rarity. Stars that appear single are often double stars or binaries revolving around a common centre of gravity.

    The Solar System

                The solar system comprises the sun and its eight planet which revolve round the sun in elliptical orbits. Other than there, the solar system also includes the natural satellites of the planets, several thousand minor planets called asteroids or planetoids and a large number of comets.

    The Sun

    The sun is made up of extremely hot gases. The sun has a surface temperature of 6000°C and increases to 20 million °C in the core. The age of the sun is about 5 billion year and its expected life about 10 billion years. It is mainly made of hydrogen & Helium. It is 149, 598, 900 km far away from the earth. The nearest star form the earth other than the sun is the Proxima Century.

    The planets of the solar system can be categorized into two groups:

    (i) Terrestrial planet

    (ii) The giant planets

    Terrestrial planets are the planets of the inner circle and comprise Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The Giant planets are the planets of outer circle and comprises Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

    The planets of the solar system according to their distance from the sun can be arranged in increasing order as Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. All the planets revolve round the sun in the same direction. The planets have rotator motion too. All the planets except Venus and Uranus rotate in the same direction of their revolution.

    The description of all eight planets are as follows;




    Planet Mean Distance from Sun

    (in  km)

    Relative Period of Revolution Relative Period of Rotation (Earth = 1 day) Diameter

    (`000 km)

    Relative Mass (Earth = Satellites) Number of known Satellites Surface Temp. (in °C) Density (Water = 1)
    Mercury 58 4.9 0.06 0 +350° (day)

    -170° (night)

    Venus 108 12 0.8 0 +475° 5.24
    Earth 150   12.8 1 1 +15° 5.52
    Mars 228 7 0.1 2 -22° 3.94
    Jupiter 778 143 318 16 -123° 1.33
    Saturn 1457 121 95 23 -180° 0.70
    Uranus 2869 47 15 15 -218° 1.30
    Neptune 4498 45 17 8 -2283.94 1.76


                Mercury: Among the eight planets, Mercury is the smallest and closest to the sun. It rotates on its own axis in 58.65 days and takes 88 days to complete one revolution around the sun. Thus it is the fastest planet in the solar system. It has no satellite.

                Venus: It is the next closest planet to the sun. it is nearest to the Earth. It is often considered Earth’s twin because of their close proximity in size, mass and density. It is also the brightest planet and that is why it is known as the evening star and morning star. It is the hottest planet because its atmosphere is full of   which provides green house effect. It has no satellite. It is 6th largest planet.

                The Earth: It is the third closest planet to the sun and fifth largest planet. No other planet is in any way comparable to Earth which has life. It is also called blue planet because of presence of water on it. It has natural satellite, the Moon. It takes 24h (23h 56 minutes and 40.91 seconds) to rotate on its axis. It takes 365 days, 5 hours and 48 minutes to revolve round the sun.

                Mars: It is the fourth planet form the sun and next after the Earth. It has iron rich red soil and that is why it is also known as red planet. Astronomers believe that it is the next planet after Earth which has possibility of some plant life. It has polar caps similar to those of the earth and due to a tilt in its axis its each hemisphere gets summer and winter. It has two small satellites called Phobos (Fear) and Deimos (Terror).

                Jupiter: It is the largest planet in the solar system. It surface is made up of many gases like hydrogen, helium and methane. It is distinguished form other planets by its circular light and dark bands. The most conspicuous aspect about Jupiter is its Great Red Spot. It has 16 Satellites. Prominent among them are Ganymede, Europe and Callisto. Ganymede is the largest satellite in the solar system. As it is very far from the sun its surface is very cold, probably about-130° C. it is called winter planet.

                Saturn: It is the 2nd largest planet and outermost planet visible to the naked eye. It is the least dense of all the planets. It is unique planet in terms of presence of system of rings. It has 21 satellites. Titan is its biggest satellite, having its own atmosphere.

                Uranus: It is the seventh planet from the sun and the 3rd largest planet in the solar system. It was discovered later with the help of telescope. It has 15 Satellite and most prominent among them are Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania.

                Neptune: It is the farthest planet from the sun and the fourth largest planet in the solar system. It has 8 satellites and Triton and Nereid are the most conspicuous of them.

                Satellites: These are bodies which revolve around the planets.

                The Moon: The moon is the earth’s natural satellite and it revolves around the earth while rotating on its axis. It takes 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes and 11.47 seconds to complete one revolution and almost some time to rotate on its axis, that is why we see only one side of the moon. It is about 1/4th the size of the Earth. It takes about 1.3 seconds for moon light to reach the earth. Whereas sunlight takes about 8 minutes and 16.6 seconds to reach the earth. The moon is the first member of the solar system to have been visited by man.


                These are also known as minor planets. They are mostly found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. They are a belt of debris which failed to assemble into planets and keep on revolving around the sun.

    Meteors and Meteorites

    These are also known as shooting stars. They are fragments of rocks coming towards the earth. Meteors are considerably small and due to heat produced by air resistance burn up before e they reach the Earth’s surface. Some Meteors and large and do not burn up completely, they land on the Earth’s surface and are known as Meteorites.


                They derive their name from the Latin words stella cometa meaning hairy star. They move around the sun in regular orbits but their orbits are very elongated, that is why they take hundreds of years to complete one revolution.  They become visible only when they travel close to the sun. Their ice melts and the gas and dust swept back into tail. Halley’s Comet last appeared in 1986 and it may reappear after 76 years.

    The Earth’s Movement

                The Earth rotates on its axis and due to this day and night are caused. The axis of the earth is inclined to the plane of the ecliptic at an angle of  giving rise to different seasons and varying length of day and night. The Earth revolves round the sun and it takes  days to complete one revolution.

                Latitude: Latitude is the angular distance of a point on earth’s surface measured in degrees from the centre of the earth. It is parallel to a line equator which lies midway between the pole. The most important lines of latitude are the equator (0°), the tropic of Cancer (), the tropic of Capricorn ( S) the Aretic circle () and the Antaratic Circle ().

                Longitudes: Longitude is an angular distance measured in degree along the equator east or west of prime meridian (0°) which is considered to by Greenwich mean time line. It is international date line. In India  E is accepted as standard time line.

    The Earth: Structure and Composition

    The Earth is made of several concentric layers. The main layer are (1) Crust [30-35 km in thickness (average)] (2) [2900 km in thickness (average)](3) Core [3470 km in thickness (average)].

    Crust: The outer layer 15 the earth’s crust- the lithosphere-which comprises of two parts; upper granitic rocks and lower basaltic rocks.

                The Earth’s Crust is made up of various types of rocks which are generally classified into 3 major groups (i) igneous            (ii) sedimentary, and      (iii) metamorphic

    Mantle: It is mainly composed of very dense rocks which is partly fluid. The upper part of the mantle is called the asthenosphere which is about 250 km thick. It is this part on which the continents and oceans rest.

                The Earth has four distinct Spheres

    1. Lithosphere: The top crust which includes the land surface and the ocean floor.
    2. Hydrosphere: The water surface which includes oceans, seas, rivers and lakes.
    3. Atmosphere: The cover of air that envelops the earth’s surface
    4. Biosphere: The sphere where life exists.

    Composition of the Earth

                The Earth is made of more than 100 different elements. The important ones are:

    Oxygen                                                46.5%

    Silicon                                                  27.72%

    Aluminium                                          8.13%

    Iron                                                      5.01%


                The Earth’s crust consists of several tectonic plates -7 major and many small plates. Due to movements of these plates various landforms appear and disappear on the Earth’s surface.


                The hydrosphere comprises large water bodies on the Earth. It consists of oceans and seas. It is estimated that 70.8% of the earth’s surface is covered by water bodies.


                The Atmosphere is the gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth. It is bound to the Earth by the gravitational pull of the Earth. The composition of atmosphere is:

    Nitrogen                                               78.09%

    Oxygen                                                20.95%

    Argon                                                   0.93%

    Minor gases (Carbondioxide etc.)          0.03%

    Various Landforms

                There are mainly three types of landforms Mountain, plateau and plain.

    Mountain: Mountains make up a large proposition of the Earth’s surface. On the basis of origin there are four main types of mountains:

    1. Fold Mountain: They are formed because of the folds in the rocks due to internal motion. The Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, Alps, Ural are examples of fold mountains.
    2. Block Mountains: The middle part is lower and both the sides are higher. It forms rift valley. Black forest vindhychal and Satpura are example of block mountains.
    3. Volcanic Mountains: They are formed from the materials came out of volcano. They are also called accumulated mountains. Mt. Fuji (Japan), Mt. Mayon (Philippines) are some of the examples.
    4. Residual Mountains: They mountains are formed by denudation. Nilgriri, parasnath are some examples of this.

                Plateaus: These are extensive upland areas characterized by flat and rough top surfaces and usually descend steeply to the surrounding lowland. They are great reserves of minerals.

    Plains: Plains can be defined as flat areas with low height. The plains usually form the best land of a country and are often extensively cultivated. Population and settlements are normally concentrated here. When plains are traversed by rivers they becomes more economic important. Some of the great plains are Indo gengestic plains.

                Forests: They are of the following types:

    • Tropical Evergreen Rain Forests: Such forests are found in the equatorial and the tropical regions having 200 cm or more annual rainfall. The leaves are very wide.
    • Tropical Deciduous Forests: Such forests are found in the tropical regions receiving rainfall less than 150 cm. Teak, saal, bamboo are found in such forest.
    • Coniferous Forests or Taiga: These are evergreen forests. The trees, in these forests, have straight-trunk, conical shape with relatively short branches and small needlelike leaves.
    • Tundra Forests: Such forests are covered with snow only Mosses, a few shrubs and Lichens grow here in the summer.


                They can be divided into two types:

    • Tropical grassland: Savana in Africa campos in Brazil, Lanos in Venezuela and Colombia are tropical grassland.
    • Temperate Pastures: Prairies in US & Canada, pampas in Argentina, veld in South Africa, Downs in Australia and Newzealand, steppes in Asia.


                Horizontal movement of air due to pressure difference causes formation of wind.

    Types of Wind

    • Local Winds: Local winds are generated due to local differences in the temperature nad air pressure.

                Hot local winds: Santa Ana (Mexico), Brick fielder (Australia), Sirocco, Harmattan (W. Africa), Khamsin (Egypt), Simoon (Sahara), Zonda (Paraguay).

                Cold local winds: Bora (Yugoslavia), Buster (Australia), Buran (Europe), Mistral (France).

    • Trade Wind: These winds blow form subtropical high pressure areas towards equatorial low pressure belt. The blow constantly & steadily in the same direction, North eastern trades in Northern Hemisphere south Eastern trades in southern Hemisphere.
    • The Westerlies: In the Northern Hemisphere they blow form south west to North East and in southern Hemisphere. They blow from North West to South East.
    • Land and Sea Breeze: These winds or breezes are formed across the coastal strip, due to pressure gradient at the sea and land.
    • Periodic Winds: Some winds change their direction due to change in season. These winds are called periodic winds Monsoons are a type of periodic wind.
    • Mountain &Valley Winds: Due to heating & cooling of the mountain & valley these winds are formed.
    • Jet Streams: These are narrow meandering bands of swift winds which blow form West to East in the upper troposphere.





                Asia is the world’s largest continent both in area and population, it accounts for roughly one third of the world’s land area and three fifth of its population.

    Facts about Asia

                Latitude: 10° S and 80° N

                Longitude: 25° E and 170° W

                Area: 44, 485, 900 sq. km. (approx)

                Population: 3, 823 million (est. 2003)- 60.7% of world population.

                Oceans and Seas: Africa Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, China Sea, Yellow Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea.

                Highest and Lowest Points: Everest (8, 848 metres) and Dead Sea (396.8 metres) respectively.

                Straits: Strait of Malacca, Bering Strait.

                Lakes: Caspian Sea, Aral Sea, Lake Baikal, Lake Balkhash.

                Islands: Kurile, Sakhalin, Honshu, Hokkaido, Taiwan, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, New Guinea, Philippines Sri Lanka, Bahrain, Cyprus.

                Mountains: Pamir Knot, Himalayas, Karakoram, Kunlun, Tien Shan, Altai, Hindu Kush, Elbruz, Pontic, Sulaiman, Zagros, Taurus, Urals , Yablonovoi, Stanovoi.

                Plateaus: Anatolia Plateau, plateau of Iran, Plateau of Arabia, Plateau of Tibet, Tarim Basin, Plateau of Mongolia, Plateau of Yunnan, Decan Plateau.

                Peninsulas: Kamchatka Peninsula, Peninsula of Korea, Peninsula of Indo-China, Malay Peninsula, Indian Peninsula, Arabian Peninsula.

                Deserts: Arabian Desert, Thar Desert, Gobi Desert.

                River: Eupharates, Tigris, Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra, Hwang-ho, Yang-tse, Si-kiang, Amur, Lena Yenisei, Ob, Irrawady, Salween, Mekong.

                Important Cities: Aden, Karachi, New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Colombo, Yangon (former Rangoon), Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City (former Saigon), Singapore, Manila, Guangzhou (former Canton), Hong Kong, Shanghai, Tokyo.



    Africa is the 2nd largest continent in the world. It is surrounded by the Mediterranean in the north, the red sea and the Indian Ocean in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

    Facts about Africa

                Latitude: 35° N and 37° N

                Longitude: 50° E and 17° W

                Population: 851 million (est.2003) – 13.5% of world population.

                Area: 30, 259, 680 sq. km. (approx) (20.4% of the world)

                Ocean and Seas: Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea, Mediterranean Sea.

                Highest and Lowest Points: Kilimanjaro (5, 894 m) and Lake Assai (-156.1 m) respectively.

                Straits: Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, Straits of Gibraltar.

                Lakes: Victoria, Tanganyka, Malawi, Chad, Rudolf, Albert.

                Island: Madagascar, Cape Verde Islands, the Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles.

                Mountains: Atlas, Drakensberg, Kilimanjaro.

                Plateaus; plateau of Africa- the entire continent is a plateau

                Deserts: Sahara, Kalahari,, Namib.


    North America

    North America, northern continent of Western Hemisphere, comprising U.S.A., Canada, Central America and the Caribbean, on west high chain of mountains, lower range in east and central plains. Climate varies considerably owing to wide range of latitude and altitude.

    Latitude: 7°N and 84° N

                Longitude: 20°W and 180 °W

                Area: 24, 235, 280 sq. km (approx) (16.3%).

                Population: 326 million (est.2003)- 5.2% of world population .

                Major Deserts: Chihuahuan, Colorado, Mujave, Sonoran

                Major Lakes: Lake Superior (largest sweet water lake in the world), Huron, Michigan, Great Slave, Great Bear, Erie, Ontario, etc.

                Major rivers: Mississippi, Missourie, St. Lawrence, Mackenzie, Colorado, Hudson, Potomac, Ohio etc.

                Ocean and Seas: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of California, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Hudson Bay.

                Highest and Lowest points: Mckinley (6, 194 m) and Death Valley (-85.9 m) respectively.

                Straits: Bering Strait

                Islands: Greenlands, Baffin, Victoria, Newfoundland, cuba, Jamaica, Haiti.

                Mountains: Rockies, Appalachain, Brooks, Kuskolkwin, Alaska Range, Cascade Range, Coastal Range, Sierra Nevada, Sierra Madre etc.

                Plateaus: Columbia Plateau, Colorado Plateau, Mexican Plateau, Canadian Shield.

                Agriculture: Temperate and tropical products, cereals, tobacco, sugarbeet, potatoes etc.

                Minerals: Coal, petroleum, iron, manganese etc.

                Industries: Ship building, occupied formerly by Red Indians; now mainly by Whites with many Blacks in the south.

                Important Cities: New York, Washington D.C., Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Mexico City, Havana Kinston, Ottawa etc.

                Climate: Extending to within 10° of latitude of both the equator and the North Pole, North America has every climatic zone, form tropical rain forest and Savanna on the lowlands of  Central America to areas of permanent ice cap, besides Sub-arctic and Tundra climates and arid as well as semi-arid zones.


    South America

                South America is the 4th largest continent in the world. This continent has fourth-fifth area in the tropics. It is also known as Latin America as in this region most of the countries speak languages derived from Latin.

    Facts about South America

                Latitude: 12° N and 55° N

                Longitude: 35° W and 81° W

                Area: 17,820,770 sq. km (12%).

                Population: 543 million (est.2003)- 8.6% of world population.

                Ocean and Seas: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea.

                Highest and Lowest Points: Aconcagua (6,960 m) and Valdes Penin (-39.9 m) respectively.

                Straits: Straits of Magellan.

                Lakes: Lake Maracaibo, Lake Titicaca

                Islands: Galapagos, Falkland, Tierra del Fuego.

                Mountains: Andes

                Plateaus: Plateau of Bolivia, Plateau of Equador.

                Desert: Atacama, Pantagonia.

                Rivers: Amazon, Orinoco, Paraguay, Parana, Uruguay.

                Important Cities: Buenos, Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Montivideo, Quito, Santiago, La Paz, Lima, Bogota, Valparaiso, Sao Paulo, Belem, Caracas, Manaus.



                Europe is smallest continent. Among the 7 continents in the world, it ranks 6th. It is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea, Europe is separated by Asia by Ural mountains.

    Facts about Europe

                Latitude: 35°N and 73° N

                Longitude: 25° W and 65° E

                Area: 10,530,750 sq. km. (approx) (7.1%); greatest length north to south 3,860 km; breadth east to west 5,300 km.

                Population: 726 million (est.2003)- 11.52% of world  population.

                Oceans and Seas: Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Caspian Sea, Black Sea, White Sea, North  Sea, Norwegian Sea, Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, Bay of Biscay, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea.

                Highest and Lowest Points: Elbrus (5, 663 m) and Caspian Sea (-28.0 m) respectively.

                Straits: Straits of Gibraltar.

                Lakes: Lake Ladoga, Onega, Peipus, Vanern, Vaitern.

                Islands: British Isles, Iceland, Sardinia, Sicily, Crete.

                Mountains: Alps, Pyrenes, Appenines, Dinaric Alps, Carpathians, Transylvanian Mts., Balkans, Caucasus, Urals.

                Plateaus: Plateau of Bohemia, Plateau of Spain, Central Massif.

                Rivers: Volga, Danube, Rhine, Po, Dnieper, Don, Vistula, Elbe, Order, Seine, Loire, Garrone, Douro, Tagus, Ural.

                Important Cities: London, Paris, Madrid, Antwerp, Amsterdam, Bonn, Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm, Moscow, Frankfurt, Berlin, Warsaw, Venice, Athens, Budapest, Belgrade, Munich, Rome, Prague, Vienna etc.



    Australia is the smallest continent in the world. It is one of the most diverse and fascinating areas on the planet. Australia along with Newzeland and the pacific island is known as Oceania.

    Facts about Australia

                Latitude: 12° S and 38°S

                Longitude: 114° E and 154° E

                Area: 7,830,682 sq. km. (5.3%).

                Population: 20.0 million (est.2003)- 0.5% of world population.

                Oceans: Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean.

                Seas: Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria, coral Sea, Great Australian Bight.

                Highest and Lowest Points: Kosclusko (2,228 m) and Lake Eyre (-15.8 m) respectively.

                Straits: Bass Strait.

                Lakes: Lake Eyre.

                Islands: Tasmania.

                Mountains: Great Dividing Range

                Plateaus: Western Plateau

                Deserts: Gibson Desert, Great Sandy Desert, Great Victoria Desert, Simpson Desert.

                Important Cities: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth, Darwin, Canberra, Brisbane, Hobart.



    There are four oceans. In order of their size, they are Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean

    Facts about Pacific Ocean

                The Pacific Ocean (Area: 166,240,000 sq. km.) is the largest ocean of the world

    It is the deepest ocean with an average depth of 4, 200 m.

    The Mariana Trench is the world’s deepest trench with a depth of 11,776 metres.

    Most of the islands of this ocean are of volcanic or coral origin

    Facts about Atlantic Ocean

                The Atlantic Ocean (Area: 86,560,000 is the second largest ocean.

                Its name is derived from Atlas, a Titan (giant) in Greek mythology.

    The Atlantic Ocean has the longest coastline.

                The Atlantic Ocean is the busiest ocean for trade and commerce since its shipping routes connect the two most industrialized regions, namely Western Europe and N.E. United States of America.

    The Atlantic Ocean a was formed millions of years ago when a rift opened up in the Gondwanaland and the continents of South America and Africa separated. The separation continues even today and the Atlantic Ocean is still widening.

                The continental islands of Newfoundland and British Isles are the major ones.

    Volcanic islands are fewer and they include those of Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico, Iceland is the largest island of volcanic origin.

    Facts about Indian Ocean

                The Indian Ocean (Area: 73,430,000 is the only ocean named after a country.

    The Indian Ocean is deeper than the Atlantic Ocean.

                 It contains numerous continental islands, Madagascar and Sri Lanka being the largest ones.

    Some of the islands of volcanic origin are those of Mauritius, Andaman and Nicobar, Seychelles, Maldives and Lakshadweep are of coral origin

    Facts about Arctic Ocean

                The Arctic Ocean (Area: 13,230,000 is the smallest of all the oceans.

    It lies within the Arctic Circle, hence the name Arctic Ocean.

    The North Pole Lies in the middle if the Arctic Ocean.

    Most of the parts of Arctic Ocean remains frozen with thick ice for most of the days every year.

    It is the shallowest   of all oceans, with an average depth of 1, 500 metre.

    It has the least salinity of all the oceans. It has a salinity of 20 units per thousand.


    World Agriculture

    Earliest evidence of Agriculture was found in Neolithic period in 8000 B.C. (China). Most primitive form of Agriculture is shifting. Agriculture first evidence of Animal domestication has been found in SE Asia. First evidence of seed plantation & central cultivation has been found in SW Asia.


    Various name of Shifting Agriculture

    Central America and Africa Melpa
    Venezuela Conuco
    Brazil  Brocha
    Zaire Masole
    Malesia Ladang
    Indonesia Humah
    Philipines Cangin
    Mayanmar Tongia
    Thailand Jamurai
    Sri Lanka Chhena
    N.E.India Jhum
    Peninsular India Bewar
    Andhra Pradesh Podu


    Least dependent on Agriculture

    Country Percentage
    Singapore 0%
    Austria 1%
    Belgium 1%
    Germany 1%
    Canada 2%
    Japan 2%
    U.K 2%
    U.S 2%
    Australia 3-4%


    Major Producer of Cereal

    Country Amount in (metric ton)
    China 460 mt
    U.S. 350 mt
    India 220 mt
    France 70 mt
    Indonesia 60 mt


    Major Crops Main Producing Countries
    Wheat China, European Union, USA
    Rice China, India, Indonesia
    Cotton China, USA, India
    Oil Seed USA, China, Brazil
    Tea India, China, Sri Lanka
    Coffee Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia



    Mineral – Leading Producing Countries

    Mineral Countries
    Aluminium Australia, Guinea, Jamaica, Surinam, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, China, USA, Greece, Hungary.
    Asbestos Canada, Zimbabwe, South Africa.
    Chromium India, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Turkey, CIS
    Coal USA, Russia, China, Germany, UK, France, Poland, Belgium, Australia, India, CIS, South Africa.
    Copper Chile, USA, Russia, China, Germany Zambia, Zaire, Canada, Spain, Mexico, Japan, Australia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Japan, Australia, India, Indonesia, CIS, Peru, Poland, Congo Dem, Rep.
    Gold South Africa, USA, Australia, Canada.
    Graphite Sri Lanka
    Iron Ore CIS, Russian USA, Australia, Canada, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Liberia, South Africa, Venezuela, Mauritania, Spain, India, China Brazil.
    Lead CIS, USA, Russia, Spain Germany Belgium, Mexico, Canada, Peru
    Lignite Germany, Russia
    Magnesium CIS, India, Russia, Mexico, Ivory, Coast South Africa, Gabon, Australia, France, Brazil.
    Mercury Italy, Spain USA
    Mica India
    Nickel Canada, CIS, Norway, Dominican Republic.
    Petroleum Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran Iraq, Qatar, UAE, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria Niger, Egypt, USA, Russia, Indonesia
    Platinum Russia, Columbia
    Silver Canada, Russia, Mexico, USA, Australia, CIS
    Tin Malaysia, Bolivia, China, Brazil, Indonesia
    Titanium Australia, Norway, CIS
    Uranium Zaire, South Africa, USA, Canada, Germany, Czech, Slovakia, Russia, India.
    Thorium India, Brazil, USA
    Zinc Canada, Russia, Belgium, Germany, Australia, CIS, Peru, Mexico, Spain.



    Industry Chief Manufacturing Countries
    Iron and steel USA, Russia, Japan, Germany, UK, France And India.
    Textiles (Cotton) USA, China, India, Japan, Russia, UK, Taiwan, Canada, Egypt, France And Italy.
    Textiles (Woolen) Russia, UK, Japan, Australia, India, France, Poland, Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Bulgaria.
    Chemicals USA, Germany, UK, Russia, Japan, Canada, Australia , India
    Paper USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia And India
    Rubber USA, UK, Germany, France, Netherland’s, Canada, Brazil, Indonesia, Sri Lanka.



    Town Country Type of Industry
    Ahmedabad India Cotton textiles
    Anshan China Iron and steel
    Baku Azerbaijan Petroleum
    Belfast Ireland Ship building
    Birmingham U.K., U.S.A Iron and steel
    Cadiz Spain Cork
    Chicago USA Meat packing
    Dhaka Bangladesh Muslin
    Darjeeling India Tea processing
    Detroit USA Automobile
    Firozabad India Glass
    Havana Cuba Cigars
    Hollywood USA Films
    Jameshedpur India Iron and steel
    Johannesburg South Africa Gold mining
    Kansas  City USA Meat packing
    Kawasaki Japan Iron and steel
    Kimberley South Africa Diamond mining
    Krivoi Rog Ukraine Iron and steel
    Leeds UK Woolen textiles
    Leningard Russia Ship building
    Los Angeles USA Petroleum, films
    Lyons Frances Silk textiles
    Magnitogorsk Russia Iron and steel
    Manchester UK Cotton textile
    Milan Italy Silk textile
    Multan Pakistan Pottery
    Munich Germany Lenses
    Nagoya Japan Automobiles
    Philadelphia USA Locomotives
    Pittsburgh USA Iron and steel
    Plymouth USA Ship building
    Rourkela India Iron and steel
    Sheffield UK Cutlery
    Shivakasi India Firecrackers
    Vladivostok Russia Ship building
    Wellington Newzeland Dairying
    Zurich Switzerland Financial city



    INDIA (Physical)

    Our Country India is a vast country. Covering an area of 3.28 million It is the seventh largest country in the world. The mainland of  India extends between 8°4` and 30°6` north latitudes and 68°7` and 97°25` East latitude. The tropic of cancer (N) divides India almost into two halves. The local time along 82°30` E longitude is taken as the standard time of India. The Indian Peninsula tapers southwards as such it divides Indian Ocean into two expanse of water-the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. India has a land boundary of 15,200 km and the total length of main coastline is 7516 km. India shares boundary with seven countries. They are Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Bhutan and Afghanistan in the decreasing order of the length of the boundary shared. The island country of Sri Lanka is located towards the South in the Indian Ocean. A narrow stretch of water, namely, the Pak strait, separates it from the mainland of India.

    India has a great diversity of landforms. It has high mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains wide plateaus and a number of islands. The great mountain of the north stretch almost uninterruptedly for about 3600 km and form an arc. The width between 150 and 400 km. the maintains extension between Pamir plateau and the Indus river is known as Korakoram, those between the Indus & Brahmputra are called the Himalayas and the eastern extension of mountains along Myanmar board is known as the Purvanchal.

    The Karakoram mountains contains some of the world’s largest mountain glaciers. The Baltoro and the Siachen and some of the examples. The world’s second highest peak called K2 (Godwin Austin) belongs to this mountain range.

    The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges. The southernmost range, called the Siwalik, is the lowest. The average altitude of Siwalik range varies between 1,000 and 1,200 meters above the sea level. Its width varies between 10-15 km.

    The ranges lying north of the Siwalik are known as the middle Himalayas, or the Himachal. They have an average height of 4,000 to 4,500 metres above the sea level. They extend over a width of about 80km. the cool climate and scenic beauty of the region attract tourists from all over the world. Some of the places are now famous hill resourts such as Dallhousie. Dharmashala, Shimla, Mussorie, Nainital and Darjeeling.

    The northernmost ranges of the Himalayas, known as the Himadri, are the highest with an average height of more than 6,000 metres above the sea level.

    The Purvachal in the north-east consist of the Patkai-Bum, the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia, and the Lushai hills.

    To the south of the Great Mountains of the north, there is a vast plain extending over 2,500 km approximately form the Satluj in the west to the Brahmaputra in the east. It is made up of the alluvium brought by the Indus, the Gang and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.

    To the south of the North Indian Plain lies the peninsular plateau. It is made of hard igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is the oldest part of India.

    The peninsular plateau is broadly divided into the Central Highlands and Deccan plateau. The northern part of the peninsula, north of the Vindhyas, is known as the Central Highlands. It is bounded by the Aravalis in the north-west, merging gradually with the Ganga plains in the north. The Central Highlands consist of a series of plateaus form west to east. The Western part of the Central Highlands is known as the Malwa plateau. Its eastern part in south Bihar is known as the Chhotanagpur plateau. Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand lie in between.

    The Deccan plateau extends from the Vindhyas in the north to the tip of the peninsula in the south. The western edge of the plateau called the Western Ghats.

    The Deccan plateau slopes gently towards the east. The eastern edge of the plateau called the Eastern Ghats consists of low discontinuous hills. The north-western part of the Deccan plateau is made up of lava flows. This part is known as the Deccan Trap.


    The Coastal Plains

    The Deccan plateau is flanked by coastal plains on both sides. The western coastal plain is broadest in the north and includes the plain of Gujarat as well. It narrow down towards south. South of Gujarat, it is known as the Konkan coast. The southern part of the coast is known as the Malabar coast. The western coastline is slightly indented having estuaries of the Narmada and the Tapi in the north and langoons or backwaters in Kerala.

    The eastern coastal plain is wider and more levelled than the western coast. The northern part of this coast is known as Northern Circar and the southern part as Coromondel Coast.

    To the west of Kerala coast, there is a cluster of numerous small island. They are collectively known as the Lakshadweep islands. They are of coral origin.

    The Andaman and Nicobar Island are located in the Bay of Bengal. They are bigger in size. While some of the islands are of volcanic origin, other are submerged hill ranges. The southernmost part of India, called the Indira Point, is located in Great Nicobar Island.

    India (Political)

                The republic of India is the world’s largest democracy. It comprises of 28 States and 7 UT.

    States  Capital
    Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad
    Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
    Andaman & Nicobar Port Blair
    Assam Dispur
    Bihar Patna
    Chhattisgarh Raipur
    Dadar & Nagar Haveli Silrassa
    Daman & Diu Diman
    Delhi New Delhi
    Goa Panaji
    Gujarat Gandhinagar
    Haryana Chandigarh
    Himachal Pradesh Shimla
    Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar
    Jharkhand Ranchi
    Karnataka Bangalore
    Kerala Trivandrum
    Lakshdeep Kavaretti
    Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
    Maharashtra Mumbai
    Manipur Imphal
    Meghalaya Shilling
    Mizoram Aizwal
    Nagaland Kohima
    Odisha Bhubneshwar
    Pondichery Pondichery
    Punjab Chandigarh
    Rajasthan Jaipur
    Sikkim Gangtok
    Tamil Nadu Chennai
    Tripura Agartala
    Uttaranchal Dehradun
    West Bengal kolkata


    States in decreasing order of area are:

    Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Utter Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Gujarat, Karnataka, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu.

    Smallest states in increasing order of area are:

                Goa, Sikkim, Tripura, Nagaland



                State touching maximum

    Number of boundaries of

    Other states ………… ………..U.P & Assam

    Union Territories

                Largest area………………….Andaman & Nicobar

    Smallest in area…………….. Lakshadweep

    UT in order of decreasing order of area are;

    Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Delhi, Pondicherry, Dadar and Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Chandigarh, Lakshdeep (in decreasing order)

    East-West Extension of India mainland is 2933 km & N-S Extenion of India mainland is 3214 km.

    States through which Tropic of Cancer passes:

    Gujarat, Rajasthan, M.P, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura, Mizoram

    Coastal States

                Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal

    States having Longest Coast (decreasing order)

    Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala

    States having Shortest Coast (increasing order)

                Goa, West Bengal, Karnataka, Odisha

    States Sharing International Boundary

                Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Sikkim, Bihar, West Bengal, States sharing both Coastline & International boundary – Gujarat.

    States having maximum states in borders

                Utter Pradesh                            8

    Assam                                      7

    Chhattisgarh                             6

    Jharkhand                                 5

    States Sharing boundaries of 2 Countries

                Assam, Uttarakhand, Mizoram

    States Sharing boundaries of 3 Countries

                Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh

    States Sharing boundaries of Pakistan

                Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir

    Climatic diversity in the Indian Sub-continent

                Like its landforms the climate of India also reflects a great variety. It varies from very cold conditions of the northern Himalayan belt to hot climate of Rajasthan desert to moderate climate of the coastal area.

    • Due to the vastness of the country and a variety of relief features there are regional variations in the climate of India.
    • The interior of the country, specially in the north, has a continental type of climate.
    • The coastal areas have a more equable climate. In mountainous areas, altitude determines the climate. There is a great deal of variation in the amount of annual rainfall.
    • In June, the highest temperature in Rajasthan may go up to 55° C.
    • But, in Drass and Kargil the night temperature in January may go down to -45°C to -50°C.
    • Mawsynram or Cherrapunji in Meghalaya has an annual rainfall of 2500 cm.
    • But, in the Thar Desert the annual rainfall is less than 13 cm.
    • Along the Malabar Coast (Kerala) the annual range of temperature is about 3°C.
    • But, it is 20°C in Hissar, Ambala and other parts of the interior.



    • Soil forms the upper layer of the earth’s crust capable of supporting life.
    • It is made up of lose rock materials and humus.
    • The soil informing processes are mainly influenced by the parent rock. Climate, vegetation and animal life.


    Importance of Soil Resources

    • Soil is an extremely important resource, especially in agricultural countries like India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    • Most food items, like rice, wheat, pulses, fruits and vegetables and much of our clothing are derived from the soil directly or indirectly.
    • Soil also gives us firewood, timber, rubber, fibers, etc. Food like milk, meat and eggs are obtained indirectly from the soil. Flowers, grass, plants and trees are also grown out of soil.


    Types of Soil found in India

                Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) divides Indian soils into eight groups: (a) Alluvial soil (b) Black soil (c) Red soil (d) Laterites and Lateritic soil (e) Arid and Desert soil (f) Saline and Alkaline soil (g) Forest soil (h) peaty and other  organic soil. However, Indian soil are generally divided into four brad types: (1) Alluvial soils; (2) Regur soils; (3) Red soils; and (4)  Laterite soils.

    Alluvial Soils

    • This is the most important and widespread category.
    • It covers 40% of the land area. In fact the entire Northern Plains are made up of these soils.
    • They have been brought down and deposited by three great Himalayan rivers – Sutlej, Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
    • Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan they extend to the plains of Gujarat.
    • They are common in Eastern coastal plains and in the deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauveri.
    • Crops Crown: Suitable for Kharif & Rabi Crops like cereals, Cottons, Oilseeds and sugarcane. The lower Ganga-Brahmaputra Valley is useful for jute cultivation.

    Regur or Black Soils

    • These soils are of volcanic origin.
    • These soils are black in colour and are also known as Black soils.
    • Since, they are ideal for growing cotton, they are also called cotton soils, in addition to their normal nomenclature of Regur soils.
    • These soils are most typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over north-west Deccan plateau and are made up of lava flows.
    • They cover the plateau of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa and southern Madhya Pradesh and extends eastwards in the south along the Godavari and Krishna Valleys.

    Crops Crown: Cotton, Jowar, Wheat, Sugarcane, Linseed, Gram Fruit and Vegetables.

    Red Soils

                Formed by the weathering of crystalline and metamorphic, mixture of clay and sand

    • These soils are developed on old crystalline rocks under moderate to heavy rainfall conditions.
    • They are red in colour because of their high Iron-oxide (FeO) content.
    • They are deficient in phosphoric acid, organic matter and nitrogenous material.
    • Red soils cover the eastern part of the peninsular region comprising Chhotanagpur plateau, Orissa, eastern Chhattisgarh, Telangana, the Nilgiris and Tamil Nadu plateau.
    • They extend northwards in the west along the Konkan coast of Maharashtra.
    • Crops Grown: Wheat, Rice, Millets, Pulses.

    Literite Soils

    • The Laterite soils are formed due to weathering of lateritic rocks in low temperatures and heavy rainfall with alternating dry and wet period.
    • They are found along the edge of plateau in the east covering small parts of Tamil Nadu, Orissa and a small part of Chhotanagpur in the north and Meghalaya in the north-east.
    • Laterite soils are red in colour with a high content of iron-oxides; poor in Nitrogen and Lime.
    • Crops Grown: Unsuitable for agriculture due to high content of acidity and inability to retain moisture.

    Arid & Desert Soil

    • Region: NW India. Covers entire area of the west Aravalis in Rajasthan and parts of Haryana, Punjab & Gujarat.
    • Characteristics: Rich in Phosphates but poor in Nitrogen.
    • Crops Grown: Fertile if irrigated e.g. Ganga Nagar area of Rajasthan (Wheat basket of Rajasthan).



    About 64% of people in India are engaged in agriculture. Just above 5% of the total geographical area of the country is under cultivation.

    Crop Seasons:  there are three major crops season in India viz. Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.

    • Kharif: The Kharif corps are associated with the monsoons. They are shown in the months of June and July and are harvested in autumn months, viz., in September and October and December and harvested in April and May. Important among the Kharif crops are rice, jowar, bazra, ragi, maize, sugarcane, cotton and jute.
    • Rabi: The Rabi crops are sown in the period between October and December and harvested in April and May. Important among the Rabi crops are Wheat, barley, peas, rabi pulses, linseed, rapeseed and mustard.
    • Zaid: The Zaid is the summer season crop, rice, maize, vegetables, sunflower and groundnut are grown during this season.
    Crops Sown in Harvested Examples
    Kharif June/July September/ October Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Maize, Cotton And Jute
    Rabi October/ December April/ May Wheat, Barley, Peas, Rapeseed, Mustard And Grams
    Zaid Summer    


    Main Crops and Leading Producer States

    Name Major Producers
    Wheat Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana
    Rice West Bengal, Tamil Nadu
    Gram Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
    Sugarcane Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra
    Coconut Kerala, Tamil Nadu
    Linseed Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
    Groundnut Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu
    rapeseed and Mustard seed Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
    Sunflower Maharashtra, Karnataka
    Cotton Maharashtra, Gujarat
    Jute West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam
    Silk Karnataka, Kerala
    Hemp Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
    Coffee Karnataka, Kerala
    Rubber Kerala, Karnataka
    Tea Assam, Kerala
    Tobacco Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh
    Pepper Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
    Cashew nuts Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
    Ginger Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh
    Turmeric Andhra Pradesh, Orissa
    Chillies Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
    Cloves Kerala
    Saffron Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Jammu And Kashmir
    Bajra Gujarat, Rajasthan
    Barley U.P., Rajasthan
    Cardamom Karnataka, Kerala
    Castor Seed Gujarat, Andhra, Pradesh
    Chillies (dry) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
    Coriander Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh
    Jowar Maharashtra, Karnataka
    Maize Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, U.P
    Potato U.P., West Bengal, Bihar
    Onion Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka
    Pulses Madhya Pradesh, U.P., Maharashtra
    Ragi Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
    Soyabean Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan


    Green Revolution in Indian Agriculture

                The green revolution was launched in 1967- 68 to improve agricultural productivity in two phases:

    1. First Green Revolution: Mainly confined to the progressive wheat producing states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
    2. Second Green Revolution: In 1983-84 the green revolution was extended to eastern and central states including West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

    As a result of the green revolution, wheat production more than doubled and rice production increased by 53%

    Dairy Farming in India

                Operation Flood I (1970-81): In collaboration with the World Bank, Operation Flood I was launched with the intention of capturing a commanding share of the liquid milk market in the metropolitan cities.

                Operation Flood II (1981-85): It was launched in 1981 and extended to almost all states.

                Operation Flood III (1985-90): It was launched in 1985 under the Seventh Five Year Plan.

                 The programmes were implemented under the aegis of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and the Indian Dairy Corporation (IDC).

    As a result of these programmes, India has not only become the second-largest milk producer in the world but also hopes to march ahead of the US in the field by the turn of the century.

    Land use Pattern in India

    • The total geographical area of India is 32.88 crore hectares.
    • Of this, data is available for only 92.5% land area. Though land is put to different uses, but cultivation of land is its most important use.
    Uses of land % put to use of land
    Cultivated 51.00
    Forested area 19.03
    Wasteland (arid, rocky and sandy areas) 14.01
    Cultivable waste 6.04
    Follow land 5.00
    Pastures and meadows 4.00


    Forest Resources in India

                Area covered: Nearly 24% of total land area (approximately 752 lakh hectares) which is about 2 per cent of the world’s area is under forest cover.

                The National Forest policy has laid down a target of raising the area covered by forests in India to nearly 33.3%

    State having maximum proportion of its geographical area

    under dense forest cover                                    – Arunachal Pradesh

    State having lowest cover under forest cover                   -Haryana

    State having largest area of forest cover in India              -Madhya Pradesh


    Types of Forests in India

    Evergreen Forests (tropical): Found in areas where rainfall between 200-300 cm, for example, Western Ghats and sub-Himalayan regions. They provide hardwood like teak, rosewood, ebony and bamboo, etc. these are coniferous forests having needle-shaped leaves

    Deciduous Forests (Monsoon Forests): Found in areas having rainfall between 150-20 cm. for example, in large parts of the Deccan Plateau stretching over Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. They provide fine timber such as teak, sal, sandalwood, etc.

    Dry Forests: Found in desert region of Rajasthan and south of Punjab where rainfall is below 75-10 cm. mostly consists of shrubs, thickest and stunted trees like kikar, jal, etc.

    Hill forests: Found in southern India and in the Himalayan regions and provide timber like oak, deodar, pines, chir, chestnuts, walnuts, chinar, Maple.

    Tidal Forests (Mangrove): Found in coastal plains which are generally submerged, particularly on deltas of rivers on the east coast (Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari). The forests on the Ganges delta in Bengal are called Sunderbans after the Sundari trees found in these forests.




    Tree Type Place Important Uses
    1.      Sandal Wood Karnataka, Tamil Nadu It’s oil is used in perfume industry, furniture, wood-craft
    2.      (a) Myrobalam

    (b) Babul


    (d) Wattle


    North India

    South India



    Extraction of  Tannin

    3.      Chir Pine Himalayas Resin
    4.      Cinechona West Bengal, Tamil Nadu Quine
    5.      Rose Wood Western Ghat, T.N, Kerala, Orissa Furniture
    6.      Sundari West Bengal (Sundarbans) Boat building
    7.      Willow J& K Sports equipments (bat etc.)
    8.      Chinar J & K Wood- Crafting
    9.      Indian Birch Himalaya Plywood, raido cabinet
    10.   (a) Teak


    (c) Deodar

    (d) Paduk

    Monsoon Forests

    Monsoon Forests


    Andaman & Nicobar


    Commercial Timbers

    Surface Water Resources

    • According to the estimate, India receives an average of 109 cm of rainfall annually.
    • This rainfall amounts to 37.000 million cubic metre. Out of this, 12,500 million cubic metres evaporates and another 7,900 million cubic metres is absorbed by land. Only 16,600 million cubic metres water is available in our rivers.
    • Out of this, only 6,600 million cubic metres of water can be used for irrigation.

    Underground Water Resources

    • Out of total rainfall, only 7900 million cubic metres of water percolates inside/ beneath the earth.
    • Out of this, only 4300 million cubic metres of water is able to reach the upper layer of the soil.
    • This water is more important for agricultural production.
    • Rest 3600 million cubic metres reaches the impervious rocks which can be used by digging wells for tube wells. Out of this only 2250 million cubic metres of water is economically viable.

    Sources of Irrigation in India

                There are various sources of irrigation which are:

    • Wells & Tubewells :           46% of total irrigation
    • Canals :           39% of total irrigation
    • Tanks :           89% of total Irrigation
    • Other Sources :           7% of total irrigation (Dongs, Kuhls, springs etc.)



    Multi Purpose River Valley Projects On River Special Features Dams Located at Places Benefitting States, U.T’s
    Damondar Valley Project Damodar First project under-taken after independence Consists of four dams Based on Tennessec Valley

    Authority model – USA

    Tiliya Dam-on  the river Barakar

    Konar Dam-on river Konari Hazaribagh

    Maithan Dam- on river Barakar

    Panchet Hill Dam – on river Damodar in Dhanbad

    Jharkhand W.B.
    Bhakara Nagal Project Sutlej-in India Highest Gravity dam in the world

    Consists of a manmade late called Gobind Sagar Lake in Himachal Pradesh on Bhakra Dam Consists of two Dams & four Power Houses

    Bakara Dam in H.P. Nangal Dam in Punjab Himachal Pradesh Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan & Delhi
    Hirakud Project Mahanadi- in Orissa Longest main stream dam in the world

    Largest high head spill way

    Consists of three dams

    Hirakund dam in Sambalpur district Tikarpra Dam Naraj  Dam Orissa


    Krishna in Andhra Pradesh Largest concrete dam in India Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in Nalgonda district Andhra Pradesh
    Tungabhadra Project Tungabhadra- Tributary of Krishna Masonary dam Tungabhadra Dam at Mallapuram in Bellary district of Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Karnataka
    Chambal Project Chambal Main purpose soil conservation in the Chambal basin. Three dams and one barrage Gandhi Sagar Dam in M.P. Jawahar Ssgar Dam in Rajasthan

    Rana Pratap Sagar Dam at Rawatbhata in Rajasthan Kota Barrage

    M.P., Rajasthan
    Gandak Project Gandak Joint venture of Bihar and Nepal   Bihar
    Kosi Project Kosi- in Bihar In cooperation with Nepal

    Main purpose is to control floods

    Barrage at Hanumannagar Bihar
    Rihand Project Rihand- a tributary of sone Consista of largest manmade lake in India named Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar (Reservoir) HEP Capacity 300 MW   M.P & U.P
    Beas Project Beas Consists of Bears- Sutlej Link (BSL) BSL is the biggest tunneling project in India

    BSL brings the water of Beas river into Sutlej river in HP

    Beas Dam at PONG in Himachal Pradesh Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
    Ramaganga project Ramganga – In UP   Saddle dam near Kalagarh in Garhwal district U.P
    Narmada Valley Project Narmada Under construction Narmada Sagar Dam in M.P. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat Gujarat, M.P. & Maharashtra
    Ghatprabha Valley Scheme Ghatprabha Irrigation Belgaum and Bijapur district of Karnataka   Karnataka
    Matatilla Project Betwa     U.P & M.P



    Country Name of Parliament
    Afghanistan Shora
    Bangladesh Jatiya Sangsad
    Bhutan Tsongdu
    Myanmar (Burma) Pyithu Hluttaw
    Denmark Folketing
    Germany Bundestag (Lower House)
    Germany Bundestrat (Upper House)
    Greenland Landstraad
    Leeland Althing
    India Lok Sabha (Lower House)
    India Rajya Sabha (Upper House)
    Indonesia Majlis
    Iran Majlis
    Israel Knesset
    Japan Diet
    Malaysia Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara
    Maldives Majlis
    Nepal National Panchayat
    The Netherlands The Staten General
    Poland Sejm
    Surinam Staten
    Switzerland Federal Assembly



    HEP’s Projects State On River Power Capacity (installed Capacity)
    Darjeeling HEP

    India’s 1st HEP Project

    West Bengal   200 KW

    India’s 1st HEP with moderntech set up in 1902

    Karnataka Kaveri 4200 KW
    Tata HEP

    Supplies Power to Bombay

    Pykara Tamil Nadu-Ist in Tamil Nadu Pykara-in-Nilgiris 68,000 KW
    Mandi Power House Himachal Pradesh-Ist in North India Uhl River 53,000 KW
    Sabarigiri (Pamba-Kakki) HEP Kerala Pamba & Kakki river 300 MW
    Idukki HEP Kerala Periyar, Cheru-theni & idukki 390 MW
    Koyna HEP

    Feeds power to Bombay-Pune industrial region

    Maharashtra Koyna-tributary of Krishna 880 MW
    Sharavathy Project

    Feeds pwer to Banglore industrial region

    Karnataka Jog Falls 270 MW
    Kalinadi’ Project Karnataka    
    Kundoh Project Tamil Nadu- largest HEP in Tamil Nadu   535 MW
    Sabarigiri Project Kerala   300 MW
    Balimela Project Orissa   360 MW
    Ukai Project Salal HEP Gujarat J & K at Dhyangarh Near Riari Tapi Chenab 300 MW
    Chukka Project Located in Bhutan

    Constructed by India

    Its surplus power brought by India for its use in N.E. parts of country including West Bengal

    Loktak Lake HEP

    Supplies Power to Manipur & Nagaland

    Mettur Dam Tamil Nadu Kaveri  
    Bhadra Project Karnataka Bhadra  
    Poochampad Andhra Pradesh Godawari  
    Kakrapara Gujarat    
    Mahi Project Gujarat Mahi  
    Tawa Project Madhya Pradesh Tawa  
    Bhima Project Maharashtra Pawanna & Krishna  
    Jayakwadi Maharashtra Godavari  
    Thien Dam Project Punjab Ravi  
    Mayurakshi Projecty West Bengal    
    Bansagar Project Madhya Pradesh Sone  
    Lower Sileru HEP

    Srisailum HEP

    Andhra Pradesh Sileru  
    Machkund HEP

    Supplies Power to A.P. and Orissa

    Andhra Pradesh Machund 114, 750 KW
    Uhl River Scheme Himachal Pradesh Uhl-a tributary of Beas  
    Lower Jhelum HEP Jammu & Kashmir Jehlum  

    In collaboration with French

    Jammu & Kashmir    
    Nathpa-Jakhi Himachal Pradesh Sutlej  
    Tehri- Hydro Power Complex Uttranchal Bhagirathi  
    Umtru HEP Meghalaya    
    Sanjay HEP- (Under Ground) Himachal Pradesh in Kinnaur district    
    Sarda Power Project Uttar Pradesh Sarda  


    Canals States
    1.      Bhakra Canal System Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan
    2.      Western Kosi Canal Bihar and Nepal
    3.      Raipur Canal – Kosi project Bihar
    4.      Upper Bari Doab Canal-159-Ravi River Punjab
    5.      Western Jamuna Canal Punjab & Haryana
    6.      Shirhind Canal- On Satluj Punjab & Haryana
    7.      Sharda Canal- On Sharda River U.P
    8.      Betwa Canal – On River Betwa U.P
    9.      Sone Canal – On River Sone Bihar
    10.   Triveni Canal – On River Triveni Bihar
    11.   Mahanadi Canal M.P. and Chhattisgarh
    12.   Wainganga Canal M.P. and Chhattisgarh
    13.   Bukingham  Canal- Longest navigable canal in India From Godavari Delta to Kaveri Delta- A.P. and Tamil Nadu
    14.   Indira Gandhi Canal/ Rajasthan Canal – Longest Canal in India -2nd longest in world – uses the water of Satluj, Beas and Ravi- the Canal takes off at Harike Barrage & ends at Mohangarh in Jaisalmer districts Rajasthan- irrigates Bikaner, Ganga nagar and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan
    15.   Jandula Canal M.P.
    16.   Pravara River Canal Maharashtra
    17.   Nira Canal- on River Yelwandi Maharashtra
    18.   Mutha Canal – River Mutha Maharashtra
    19.   Kurnol – Cuddapah Canal Andhra Pradesh
    20.   Grand Anicut Canal and Vardavar Canal-on Mettur Dam in Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu
    21.   Taldanda Canal Orissa
    22.   Agra Canal – Starts from Okhla U.P.
    23.   The Garland Canal System- proposed by Mr. Dinshaw J. Dastur- to provide irrigation facilities to all parts of India- the project envisages the construction of 2 mammoth canal

    (i)          The Himalayan catchment Canal

    (ii)          Central Deccan

    (iii)          Plateau Canal





    • Total Road Network in India: 3.31million km
    • Oldest and famous road: Grand Trunk Road (Sher Shah Suri Marg)

    (Initially it connected Peshawar and Kolkata but now, it runs from Amritsar to Kolkata)

    • First serious attempt to develop Roadways was during British (1943) according to Nagpur Plan
    • Border Roads organization (BRO) was started in 1960
    • It was started for the maintenance and security of roads of strategic importance
    • Greater than 30,000 kms of road are under BRO
    • 21 National Highways are under BRO
    • Roads are divided into

    National Highways

    • Constructed and maintained by Central Public Works Department
    • A Total length of National Highways is 42000 km
    • 40% of total road traffic in India
    • For interstate and strategic movements
    • NH covers 2% of total roads in India

    State Highways

    • Constructed and maintained by State Government
    • The roads connect State capital with District H.Q.
    • A total length of State Highways is 150000 km

    District Roads

    • Constructed and maintained by Zila Parishad
    • Roads connect District H.Q. with Tehsils and blocks
    • A total length of district roads is 650000 km.

    Village Roads

    • Villages to nearby towns
    • A total length of village roads is 14.5 lakh km

    Important National Highways

    1. Delhi- Ambala- Jalandhar- Amritsar
    2. Delhi- Kolkata
    3. Agra- Mumbai via Nasik
    4. Mumbai- Chennai
    5. Chennai- Kolkata
    6. Varanasi – Kanyakumari (longest)
    7. Varanasi – Kanyakumari (longest)
    8. Delhi – Bombay (via Jaipur – Ahmedabad)
    9. Bombay – Vijayawada
    10. Delhi – Fazilka (border)

    Super National Highways

    • Golden Quadrilateral
    • N-S corridor (Kanyakumari- Srinagar) and E-W corridor (Silchar – Porbandar)
    • Total length 14000 km
    • National highway along West coast NH 17
    • National highway along East coast NH 5
    • Border Road (Rajasthan) NH 15
    • World’s highest Motorable Road- Manali- Leh passes through Bara Lacha La
    • First country to have nationwide highway in Germany where NH are called as Autoban.
    • In france NH are called as Autoroute. In Italy autostrade, Australia- Commonwealth Highways
    • Alaskan Highway runs from Edmonton to Anchorage
    • Transcontinental Stuart Highway runs from Oodnadat to Birdum (Australia)
    • Pan-American high way runs through South America- Central America – Mexico- U.S

    State have maximum roads (length wise)

                Maharashtra (10% of total)

    Uttar Pradesh

    Tamil Nadu

    Andhra Pradesh

    Madhya Pradesh

    States having maximum road density (Per 100

    Kerala (365 km/ 100

    Goa (201 km)

    Tamil Nadu (158 km)

    Tripura (140 km)

    States having maximum roads per lakh population

                Arunachal Pradesh



    Maximum surfaced roads


    Tamil Nadu


    Maximum National highways

                M.P. (8.6% of total)

    Maharashtra (8.5%)

    U.P. (8.35%)



    • 1825- first Public Railway in the world ran from Stockton to Darlington (northern England)
    • In India it was started in 1853 during Dalhousie period between Bombay and Thane.
    • Normally most railways in the world have standard Guage of 1.4 m.
    • In India we have three different types of routes Broad Guage (1.67 k), Metre Guage (1.0 m) and Narrow Guage (0.7 m)
    • No standard Guage is used in India.
    • In West Europe greatest railway density is in Belgium.
    • UK- 2 major rail centers- London, Glasgow
    • In North America, first railways was started in Baltimore (1830)
    • North America has the most extensive railways in the world (almost 40$ of the world’s network)
    • USA has a rail length of 3,40,000 km on standard guage and Canada, 1,00,000 km
    • Densest Railway Network in North America is along Easter Central US, South Canada and Atlantic Seaboard
    • Canadian Pacific Railway connects Vancouver to St. John in New Brunswick
    • Canadian National Railway connects Halifax to Prince Rupert
    • Australia has 40,000 km of Railway line and 25% is in New South Wales
    • Australian Trans Continental Railway is greater than 4000 km long which connects Perth and Sydney
    • In USSR, Trans Siberian Railway connects St. Petersberg to Vladivostok
    • In Japan first Railway line was laid in 1872 from Tokyo to Yokohama
    • The railway line along Tokyo to Osaka (known as Tokkaido express is famous for its speed and efficiency)
    • In China East- West Route runs between Tianjin and Lachow
    • In South America the Trans continental railway runs form Buenes Airs to Valparaiso and it passes through Uspalata pass
    • In Africa, the Benguela railway runs from Angola to Katanga Cu belt
    • In US there are 3 cross country railways
    • South Pacific railway (Los Angeles New Orlean)
    • West Pacific railway (San Francisco Philadelphia)
    • North Pacific railway (Portland- New York)
    • Tanzara railway (Tanzam) was constructed with Chinese assistance to connect Dares Salam with Katanga
    • Trans African Railway runs from Beirra (Mozambique) to Benguela

    Indian Railways

    • First railway line was laid in 1853 form Mumbai to Thane (34 kms)
    • 1/3rd of the total distance in India is electrified
    • Toatal length of Brad Guage is 45000 kms, Metre Guage 15000 kms and Narrow Guage 3200 kms
    • Indian railways is the largest in Asia and 4th largest in the world after US. Russia and Canada
    • It is the 2nd largest railway system under a single management.
    • There are 16 zones in India
    • Longest zone is the Northern zone with 11000 km
    • Recently National Rail Vikas yojana (NRVY) was launched to increase the speed, to enhance quadrilateral network connecting all metros (superfast + double line) and to connect the ports.
    • Konkan railway is run by a separate corporation and its runs form Mangalore to Roha (40 km south of Mumbai)
    • 4 states involved in this network are Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka nad Kerala
    • It does not passes through Kerala.
    • 51% of the shares of Konkan railway is with Indian Railways
    • It has the fastest of tracks in India
    • Total length is 760 km
    • 10% of the line passes through tunnels
    • Longest tunnel is near Ratnagairi in Karbude 6.5 km

    Railways Zones – Headquarters

    • Central Railway – Mumbai
    • Eastern Railway – Kolkata
    • Northern Railway – Delhi
    • North-East Railway – Gorakhpur
    • North- East Frontier – Malegaon near Gowahati
    • Southern Railway – Chennai
    • South Central Railway – Secunderabad
    • South East Railway – Kolkata
    • Western Railway – Mumbai (Church Gate)
    • East Coast Railway – Bhubaneswar
    • East Central Railway – Hajipur
    • North Central Railway- Allahabad
    • North Western Railway – Jaipur
    • South Western Railway – Hubli
    • West Central Railway – Jabalpur
    • Bilaspur Railway – Bilaspur

    South- East Central

    • Rail density is maximum in North Indian Plains because of its leveled surface and very high density of population.
    • Railway density in hills and plateaus are quite low.
    • East coast has more railway lines than West coast.
    • Rail route per 1000 sq. km is maximum in Punjab (42 kms), then West Bengal, Haryana, Bihar, UP
    • Indian average rail route density is 18.6 km/ 1000 sq km

    Water Transport in India

    • Cheapest and most efficient over long distances
    • Water Transport: Railway – 1:10:100 (cost)
    • Railway Road – 1:10
    • Water: Railway: Road – 1:10:100
    • Total navigable water way: 14500 km
    • Mechanized craft – 5700 km

    Declared National Waterways

    • NW 1- Allahabad – Haldia – 1620 km
    • NW 2 – Sadia – Dubri (Bangladesh –Assam- 890 km border)
    • NW 3 – West coast canal – Kollam to Kotappuram – 205 km

    Other identified lines

    • Godavari – Chirla to Rajmundhri
    • Champakkara canal (Alleppey)
    • Udyougmandalam canal (Kochi)
    • Government is proposing to extend West Coast Canal from Kovalam – Kasargode
    • Proposed Natinal Water Way: Kakinada to Marakkanam 1100 km
    • Out of 14500 km

    UP                               17%

    WB                              16%

    AP                               14%

    Assam                          13.5%

    Kerala                          11%


    West- East

    ·        Kandla

    ·        Navasheva

    ·        Cochin

    ·        Tuticorin

    ·        Ennore

    ·        Paradeep

    ·        Kolkata

    ·        Mumbai

    ·        Mangalore

    ·        Vizhinjam (harbour)

    ·        Chennai

    ·        Vizag

    ·        Haldia

    Volume of Cargo

                Maximum in Vizag, Kandla, Mumbai, Chennai, Haldia- Kolkata

    • Airways in India started in 1911
    • Indian National Airways company started in 1933
    • All the airway companies were nationalized in 1953 and were put under two corporations namely – Indian Airline and Air India.
    • Indian Airlines provides its services to the internal parts of India along with neighbouring countries of Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Maldives.
    • Air India provides it services to the foreign locations.
    • Vayudoot was established in 1981 for domestic services, but was later merged in Indian Airlines.

    Major International Airports of India

    • Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Santa Cruz Airport) – Mumbai
    • Subhash Chandra Bose Airport (Dum Dum Airport) – Kolkata
    • Indira Gandhi International Airport – Delhi
    • Meenambkam International Airport – Chennai
    • Thiruvananthpuram Airport – Thiruvananthpuram
    • Rajasansi Airport – Amritsar



    India a rich in iron, mica, manganese, bauxite; self-sufficient in antimony, building materials, cement materials, clay, chromite, lime, dolomite and gold; deficient in copper, lead, mercury, zinc, tin, nickel, petroleum products, sulphur and tungsten.

    Mineral Found in Features
    Iron Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa India has the world’s largest reserves; approximately one-fourth of world’s known reserves
    Coals Jharkhand, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Assam India is the fourth- largest producer in the world
    Manganese Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh India ranks  in the world in manganese production
    Mica Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu India has the largest deposits of mica in the world
    Bauxite (Aluminium ore) Jharkhand, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, J & K, Orissa, Rajasthan India is the third- largest producer in the world
    Copper Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat  
    Crude Oil Assam, Tripura Manipur, West Bengal, Ganges Valley, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch, Andhra Pradesh off West Bengal, Orissa, Maharashtra and Gujarat  
    Gold Karnataka; in small quantities in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka Kolar Mines  
    Gypsum Rajasthan, J & K, Tamil Nadu  
    Lead-Zinc Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil- Nadu, Orissa, Sikkim and Rajasthan  
    Diamond Madhya Pradesh; traces are also found in Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh  



    National Parks

    A national park is an area which is strictly reserved for the protection of wildlife. In these areas, activities like forestry, grazing or cultivation are prohibited by the government. At present, there are 94 national parks in India covering an area 33, 988 km or about 1 per cent of India’s total area.


                A sanctuary is an area which is reserved for the conservation of animals only. Here harvesting of timber. Collection of forest products and private ownership rights are permitted. They are at present 501 sanctuaries in India covering an area of about 1, 07,310 km or about 3.2 per cent of total land area.

    Project Tiger

                 To save the tigers from extinction in India, project Tiger was launched on April 1, 1973. The project planned create tiger reserves in selected areas of the country. Out of 434 national parks and sanctuaries, 27 have been selected for this project.

    Project Elephant

                To protect wildlife and elephant population. Project Elephant had been launched in the Eighth plan. Though it officially began in the financial year 1991-92, the real work for demarcating ‘elephant territory’ and an elephant census began in 1993. A financial allocation of Rs. 6.5 crore for the Eighth plan period had been made towards the scheme.

    Some important national park and sanctuaries are given;

    Name Location Reserve for
    Achanakmar Sanctuary Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh Tiger, boar, chital, sambar, bison
    Bandhavgarh National Park Shahdol, M.P Tiger, Panther, chital, nilgai, wild boar
    Bandipur Sanctury Border of Karnataka & Tamil Nadu Elephant, tiger, panther, sambar, deer, birds
    Banerghatta National park Bangalore, Karnataka Elephant, chital, deer, grey, partridges, green pigeon
    Bhadra Sanctuary Chikmagalur, Karnataka Elephant, chital, panther, sambar, wild boar
    Bhimabandh Monghyr, Bihar Tiger, leopard, sambar, wild boar, chital, water birds
    Bori Sanctuary Honshangabad, MP Tiger, panther, sambar, wild boar, chital, water birds
    Borivili National park Mumbai Panter, samber, langur, wild boar, chinkara
    Chandraprabha Sanctuary Near Varanasi, UP Famous for Gir lions, chital and sambar
    Corbett National Park Nainital, Uttarakhand Tiger, leopard, elephant, sambar (named in memory of Jim Corbett)
    Dachigam Sanctuary Dachigam, Kashmir Kashmiri stag
    Dalma Sanctuary Singhum, Jharkhand Elephant, leopard, wild board, barking deer
    Dandeli Sanctuary Dharwar, Karnataka Tiger, panther, sambar, chital, sambar, wild boar
    Dudhwa National park Lakhimpurkheri, UP Tiger, panther, sambar, chital, nilgai, barking deer
    Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary Mandsaur, MP Chital, sambar, chinkara, barking deer, wild birds
    Grampani Sanctuary Diphu, Assam Elephant, leopard, wild buffalo, langur
    Ghana Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur, Rajasthan Water birds, black-buck, chital, sambar
    Gir Forest Junagarh, Gujarat India’s biggest wildlife sanctuary famour for Gir lions
    Gautam Buddha Sanctuary Gaya, Bihar Tiger, leopard, sambar, chital, barking deer
    Hazaribagh Sanctuary Hazaribagh, Jharkhand Tiger, leopard, chital, nilgai, sambar, wild cat.
    Intangki Sanctuary Kohima, Nagaland Elephant, gaur, tiger, panther, barking deer, wild boar
    Jaldapara Sanctuary West Bengal Rhinoceros
    Kawal Sanctuary Adilabad, AP Tiger, panther, gaur, chital, wild board
    Kaziranga National Park Jorhat, Assam Horned, rhinoceros, gaur, elephant, leopard, wild buffalo
    Khangchandzenda National Park Gangtok, Sikkim Snow leopard, musk deer, Himalayan boar
    Kinnersani Sanctuary Khamrsan, AP Tiger, Panther, gaur, chital, sambar, nilgai
    Kolleru Pelicanary Ellufu, AP Pelicans, Painted stroke
    Nagerhole National park Coorg, Karnataka Elephant, tiger, panther, sambar, chital
    Namdafa Sanctuary Tirap, AP Elephant, panther, sambar, tiger, chital, king cobra
    Nawefgoan National Park Bhandara, Maharashtra Tiger, panther, sambar, chital nilgai
    Pachmarhi Sanctuary Hoshangabad, MP Tiger, Panther, board, sambar, nilgai, barking deer
    Pakhal Sanctuary Warangal, AP Tiger, Panther, sambar, chital, nilgai
    Parambikulam Sanctuary Palghat, Kerala Tiger, leopard, gaur, elephant, nilgai, chital
    Pench National Park Nagpur, Maharashtra Tiger, panther, gaur, sambar, chital, nilgai
    Periyar Sanctuary Idukki, Kerala Elephant, tiger, panther, gaur, nilgai, sambar, wild beer
    Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary Islands in Cauvery river in Karnataka Important bird sanctuary
    Rohla National Park Kulu, HP Snow- leopard, brown boar, musk deer, snowcock, new pigeon
    Sariska Sanctuary Alwar, Rajasthan Tiger, panther, sambar, gaur, chital, wild boar
    Sanctuary Shikari Devi Sanctuary Mandi, HP Black boar, musk deer, panther, leopard, partridge
    Shivpuri National Park Shivpuri, MP Tiger, panther, sambar, hyena, sloth, boar, nilgai
    Similipal Sanctuary Mayurbhanj, Orissa Elephant, tiger, leopard, gaur, chital
    Someshwars Sanctuary Canara, Karnataka Tiger, panther, wild boar, leopard
    Sunderban Tiger Reserve South 24 paraganas, W.B Tiger, deer, wild boar, crocodile, Ganget dolphin
    Sonai Rupa Sanctuary Tezpur, Assam Elephant, sambar, wild boar, one-horned rhinoceros
    Tadoda National Park Chandrapur, Maharashtra Tiger, panther, sambar, nilgai, chinkara, chital
    Tadwai Sanctuary Warangal, AP Tiger, panther, sambar, gaur, jungle cat
    Tansa Sanctuary Thane, Maharashtra Panther, sambar, chital, four-horned antelope
    Tungabhadra Sanctuary Bellary, Karnataka Panther, chital, sloth boar, four-horned antelope
    Valvadore National Park Bhartnagar, Gujarat Wolf, black buck
    Wedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Important bird sanctuary
    Wynad Sanctuary Cannanore and Kozhikode Kerala Elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, wild boar, deer
    Wild Ass Sanctuary Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat Wild ass, wolf, nilgai, chinkara



    Names of the Reserve State
    Simlipal Orissa
    Dudwa Uttar Pradesh
    Kalked Mondandanthorai Tamil Nadu
    Balmiki Park Bihar
    Palamau Jharkhand
    Bandhavgarh Madhya Pradesh
    Pench Park Madhya Pradesh
    Panna Madhya Pradesh
    Tadoba Andheri Maharashtra
    Impha Park Mizoram
    Bandipur Karnataka
    Kanha Madhya Pradesh
    Melghat Maharashtra
    Ranthambhor Rajasthan
    Corbett Uttaranchal
    Sundarbans West Bengal
    Manas Assam
    Manas Assam
    Periyar Kerala
    Sariska Rajasthan
    Buxar West Bengal
    Indravati Madhya Pradesh
    Nagarjuna Sagar Andhra Pradesh
    Namdapha Arunachal Pradesh



    Name State Height above Sea Level
    Almora (Kumaon hills) Uttarakhand 5,500
    Cherrapunji (shillong) Meghalaya 4,455
    Coonoor (Nilgiri hills) Tamil Nadu 6,740
    Dallhousie Himachal Pradesh 7,867
    Darjeeling West Bengal 7,168
    Gulmarg Kashmir 8,850
    Kasauli (Shimla) Himachal Pradesh 7,200
    Kodaikanal Tamil Nadu 7,200
    Mahabaleshwar Maharashtra 4,500
    Mt. Abu Rajasthan 4,500
    Mussoorie Uttarakhand 7,500
    Nainital Uttarakhand 6,400
    Ootacamund Tamil Nadu 7,500
    Pachmarhi Madhya Pradesh 3,500
    Rachi Jharkhand 2,100
    Shilling (Khasi hills) Meghalaya 5,000
    Shimla Himachal Pradesh 7,000
    Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir 5,250



    Place State River
    Agra UP Yamuna
    Ahmedabad Gujarat Sabarmati
    Allahabad UP Confluence of Ganga, Yamuna & Saraswati
    Alwaye Kerala Periyar
    Ayodhya UP Sarayu
    Badrinath UP Alaknanda
    Bhagalpur Bihar Ganga
    Buxar Bihar Ganga
    Calcutta West Bengal Hooghly
    Cuttack Orissa Mahanadi
    Delhi Delhi Yamuna
    Dibrugarh Assam Brahmaputra
    Ferozepur Punjab Sutlej
    Guwahati Assam Brahmaputra
    Hardwar UP Ganga
    Howrah West Bengal Hooghly
    Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh Musi
    Jabalpur MP Narmada
    Kanpur UP Ganga
    Ludhiana Punjab Sutlej
    Mathura UP Yamuna
    Moradabad UP Ramganga
    Munger Bihar Ganga
    Nasik Maharashtra Godavari
    Patna Bihar Ganga
    Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir Jhelum
    Surat Gujarat Tapti
    Tiruchirapalli Tamil Nadu Cauvery
    Viijayawada Andhra Pradesh Krishna
    Varanasi UP Ganga
    Sekobaghat Assam Brahmaputra
    Shrirangattanam (River Island) Karnataka Kaveri
    Kurnool Karnataka Tungabhadra



    City Location River
     Amsterdam Netherlands Amsel
    Alexandria Egypt Nile
    Bangkok Thailand Menan
    Belgrade Yugoslavia Danube
    Baghdad Iraq Tigris
    Berlin Germany Spree
    Bonn Germany Rhine
    Budapest Hungary Danube
    Cairo Egypt Nile
    Calcutta India Hooghly
    Canton China Canton
    Hamburg Germany Elbe
    Kabul Afghanistan Kabul
    Karachi Pakistan Indus
    Rangoon Myanmar Irrawady
    Rome Italy Tiber
    Shanghai China Yan-tse-Kiang
    Khartoum Sudan Confluence of Blue and White Niles
    Kiev Russia Dnieper
    Lahore Pakistan Ravi
    Leningrad Russia Neva
    London England Thames
    Lyons France At the confluence of Rhine and Seine
    Mandalay Myanmar Irrawady
    Montreal Canada St. Lawrence
    Moscow Russia Moskva
    New Delhi India Yamuna
    New York USA Hudson
    Ottawa Canada Ottawa
    Paris France Seine
    Prague Czechoslovakia Vitava
    Quebec Canada St. Lawrence
    Tokyo Japan Arakawa
    Vienna Austria Danube
    Warsaw Plland Vistula
    Washington USA Potamac




    Country Capital Currency
    Afghanistan Kabul Afghani
    Albania Tirana Lek
    Algeria Algiers Dinar
    Angola Luanda Kwanza
    Argentina Buenos Aires Peso
    Australia Canberra Australian Dollar
    Austria Vienna Schilling
    Bahrain Manama Dinar
    Bangladesh Chaka Taka
    Barbados Bridgetown Dollar
    Belgium Brussels Franc
    Bhutan Thimpu Ngultrum
    Bolivia La paz Peso
    Botswana Gaborone Pula
    Brazil Brasillia Cruzeiro
    Bulgaria Sofia Lev
    Burundi Bujumbura Franc
    Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel
    Cameroon Yaounde Franc
    Canada Ottawa Dollar
    Cape Verde Praia Escudo
    Central African Republic (CAR) Bangui Franc
    Chad N’Djamena Franc
    Chile Santiago Peso
    China Beijing Yuan
    Colombia Bogota Peso
    Costa Rica San Jose Colon
    Cuba Havana Peso
    Cyprus Nicosia Pound
    Denmark Copeahagen Krone
    Dominican Republic Roseau Dollar
    Equador Quito Sucre
    Egypt (UAR) Cairo Pound
    El Salvador San Salvador Colon
    Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr
    Fiji Suva Dollar
    Finland Helsinki Markka
    France Paris Franc
    Gambia Banjul Dalasi
    Germany Berlin Beutsche Mark
    Czech Republic Prague Crown
    Slovakia Bratislava Koruna
    Ghana Accra Cedi
    Greece Athens Drachma
    Guatemala Gutaemala City Quetzal
    Guinea Conakry Syli
    Guinea-Bissau Bissau Escudo Peso
    Guyana Georgetown Dollar
    Haiti Port-au-Prince Gourde
    Hong Kong Victoria Dollar
    Hungary Budapest Forint
    Iceland Reykjavik Krona
    India New Delhi Rupee
    Indonesia Jakarata Rupiah
    Iran Teheran Rial
    Iraq Baghdad Dinar
    Ireland Dublin Pound
    Israel Jerusalem Shekel
    Italy Rome Lira
    Ivory Coast Abidjan Franc
    Jamaica Kingston Dollar
    Japan Tokyo Yen
    Jordan Amman Dinar
    Kenya Nairobi Shilling
    Korea (North) Pyongyang Won
    Korea (South) Seoul Won
    Serbia Belgrade Dinar
    Croatia Zagreb Dinar
    Slovenia Ljubjana Tolar
    Montenegro Titograd Dinar
    Bosnia-Herzegovina Serajevo Kuna
    Macedonia Skopje Dinar










    Can u share this as pdf diii

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