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    1. Harappan (Punjab):  Situated on river Ravi in Montegonmery district Punjab (Pakistan).

    It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921-23. The Indus Civilization is named after it.


    1. Muhenjodaro (Sind): Situated in Larkana district of Sind (Pak)

    It was excavated by R.D. Banerjij in 1922.The main buildings include the great bath, the great granary, the collegiate building Assembly hall. The Dancing girl made of bronze has been found here.


    1. Kalibangan (Rajasthan):On the banks of Ancient River Saraswati, now called Ghaggar.

    It is known for pre-Harappan and Harappan and Harappan setting. A plough field has been found.

    1. Kot-Diji (Sind): Discovered by Ghurye in 1935.


    1. Ropar (Punjab): Excavated by Y.D. Sharma in 1953. Harappan and post-Harappan culture.


    1. Banwali (Haryana): Excavated by R.S. Bist in 1973, Pre-Harappan and Harappan culture.


    1. Alamgirpur (Western U.P.): Eastern most Harappan site, Represents last phase of Harappan culture.


    1. Suktagendar (Baluchistan): Excavated by G.Dales in 1962. A coastal site, played an important role in trade with Babaylonia.


    1. Lothal (Gujarat): Discovered by S.R. Rao in 1957. A port town divided into citadel, lower town and dockyard. Evidence of rice has been found.


    1. Surkotada (Gujarat): Excavated by Jagapati Joshi in 1964.

    Bones of horse has been found here.


    1. Rangpur (Gujarat): Excavated by Vats in 1931 & by S.R. Rao in 1953.

    Traces of pre-Harapan and post-Harappan culture.


    1. Rojdi (Gujarat): It possesses structure of pre- Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan period.







    The Rig Vedic gods were predominantly males. But there were also female deities.

    Terrestrial gods (Prithivisthana) Agni, Soma, Brihaspati, Prithvi and the Rivers.

    Atmoshpheric or intermediate gods (antarikshasthana)-Indra, Rudra, Vayus & Vata.

    Celestial gods (dyusthana)- Dyans, Mitra, Surya, Savitri, Pushan, Vishnu, Aditya, Usha and Aswins.

    The dominant mode of worship was recitation of prayers and offering of sacrifices.

    Gods were not worshipped for spiritual upliftment or any abstract philosophical concept, but for material gainspraja (child);




    Indra : War gid & Weather god called Purandra.

    Varuna : Holder of cosmic order (thus a creator god)

    Agni : Fire god (intermediary between God & man)

    Surya : Sun god

    Pushan : Guardian of roads, herdsmen and cattle.

    Soma: God of plants and an intoxicating drink.

    Maruts: Connected with vow & compacts.

    Vayu: Wind god, Aryaman Guardian of compacts & marriages.

    Tvastr: The vedic falcon

    Rudra: Archer god or Shiva (dwelling in the mountain)

    Aditi: Mother of gods.

    Usa: Goddess of dawn.

    Prithvi: Personification of earth

    Ratri: Spirit of the night.

    Aranyani: The lady of forest




    • The period saw decline of the Rig Vedic gods.


    • Prajapati, the creator came to occupy the supreme position in the later vedic pantheon.


    • Rudra, the god of animals became important.


    • Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver and protector of the people.


    • Pushan, who was supposed to look after cattle came to be regarded as the God of the sudras.


    • The mode of worship changed. The cult of Yajna and sacrifices became the corner-stone of the religious  life and assumed both public and domestic character.


    • Some of the famous sacrifices performed by the king included the Asvamedha Yajna, Rajsuya- Yajna, Vajapaya-Yajna.




    1. Samhitas or Vedas: These are books of hymns which are sung in praise of God. The four Samhita or Vedas are Rigveda. Samaveda, Yajurveda & Atharvaveda.


    • Rig Veda (1500-900 BC): it is a collection of hymns for use at sacrifices. It consists of 1017 hymns & is divided into 10 mandalas.
    • Sama veda: It is a collection of verses from Rig Veda with exception of 75hymns. It is known as book of chants & is sung at the time of soma sacrifices.
    • Yajur Veda: It is a book of sacrificial formula. It is divided into Black Yajur Veda (prose) and white Yajur Veda (hymns).

    It deals with magical formula and which craft. It contains many non-aryan elements.


    1. Brahmanas: They are commentaries on various hymns of the Vedas & explain the meaning of sacrifices & method of performing them. It marks a transition from Vedic to later Brahmanical social order.


    1. Arayanyakas (800-600BC): It teaches the philosophy of Vedanta (end or final goal of Vedas). The Upanishads deal with the relation between the creator and the created. It believes in transmigration of soul and salvation by knowledge. There are 108 Upanishads.


    1. Upanishads (800-500BC): It teaches the philosophy of Vedanta (end or final goal of Vedas). The Upanishades deal with the relation between the creator and the created. It belives in transmigration of soul and salvation by knowledge. There are 108 Upanishads.


    1. Vedangas: They are auxiliary treatises to the Vedas or limbs of the Vedas. The six vedangas are Kalpa, Siksha, Vyakarans, Nirukta Chanda & Jyotisha.


    1. Upa-Vedas: These are subsidiary Vedas dealing with secular subjects. Important Up-Vedas are : Ayurveda, (medicine), Dhanurveda (warfare); Gandharve veda (music) & Silpaveda (architecture).


    1. Sutras: These are legal literature. Griha sutra deals with domestic and religious duties of a family man, Dharma Sutras deals with social duties.


    1. Dharma Shastras: They are books on laws and judicial procedures of the Aryans. Important Dharma Shastras are Manu Smriti, Vishnu Smriti, Yajnavalkya Smriti, Narad Smriti.


    1. Puranas: These are 18 in number and include lists of old dynasties.


    1. Mahabharata (1000-70-BC): Originally known as Jaya Samhita and Satasahasri Samhita, Traditional author, Vyas.




    The six Darshans were written between the 6th century and at the time of Ashoka. They are given

    in the form of Sutras or aphorisms. These are as follows:


    • ( Purva) Mimansa: The greatest of the ‘Mimansa’ scholars was Shabarsvamin, who flourished in the 6th century A.D.


    • Vaisheshika: It is older than ‘Nayaya’, Founder was Uluka Kanada. The greatest of his commentators, Prashashtapad, perhaps lived in the sixth century.


    • Yoga: The basic text goes back to the Yoga Sutra of patanjali (2nd century B.C.) The present form is main expositor, may be-referred to the fourth century A.D.
    • Sankhya: Authored by Kapila, who lived about 580 B.C.


    • Uttrara Mimansa (also called Vedanta): Badrayan is sald to have formulated its main tenets in the early Christian centuries Gaudapada, an important thinker sit this school, lived around the middle of the sixth century A.D. Vedanta contains 555Sutras divided into Four Chapters.




    • The second and Thirteenth rock edicts of Ashoka mentions the Chola, Pandya, Satiyaputra and Keralaputra in the south.


    • Kharavela’s Huthigumpha inscription (155BC) mentions Tramiradesasangatham or confederacy of Tamil states.


    • The Sangam age pertains to first 3 or 4 centuries A.D.




    • Pandya is mentioned by Megasthenese as the kingdom for pearl & ruled by women.


    • Pandyas has their capital at Madurai on river Vaigal.


    • The three assemblies or Sangam were held at Madurai.


    • The most important Pandya king was Nedunjheliam celebrated by Magudi Muruden & Nakikar in Pattupattu. Their royal emblem was carp.


    • The important town in Pandyan country was Madurai, Korkai, Daliyur, Nirpeyaru & Necynda.




    • The chola country was situated in lower Kaveri valley between river Velar & Penar.


    • Their Capital was Iraiyur.


    • The most important ruler was Karikala.


    • He followed Vedic religion & performed Vedic sacrifices, the important towns in chola country was Puhar or Kaveri-patanam founded by Karikala & Uraiyur famous for cotton.


    • Their royal emblem was tiger.




    • Their capital was Vanji.


    • The greatest Chola King was Senaguttuvan or Red Chera.


    • According to Silippadikaram he founded the pattini cult.


    • The important towns of Chera country included Muziris (yavanas entered with gold & left with pepper); Tondi, Bandar & Vanji.


    • Roman built a temple of Augustus at Muziris.




    • Tolkappiyam by Tolkappiya: Modelled on the Andra school of grammar. It also mentions the 8 forms of marriages of the Dharma Sutras.


    • Tirukkural by Tiruvalluvar: Tailded the Bible of Tamil land.


    • Silappadigalai by Illanguvadigal


    • Manimegalai by Sattan: Epic


    • Sivaga Sindamai by Jaina Scholar TIruttakkadevaar.


    • Patinappalai by Rudran Kannanar.


    • Eight Anthologies or Ettotogai: Narrinai, Kuruntogai, Aingurunuru, Padirupatu, Paripadal, Kalittogai, Agananuru, Purananuru.


    • Sangam poems are divided into Agam (love) and Puram (kings).


    • Sangam Poems refer to different regions: Kurinji (hills), Palai (dryland), Mullai (jungle), Murudam (cultivated plains). Neidal (Coast).





    Based on the teachings of Gutam Buddha, Buddhism id one of the great religions of the world. According to Buddhism, salvation lies in life in acoordance with the precepts formulated by Buddha. These precepts, in their most cardinal form, include:

    1. Suffering exists wherever there is life.
    2. Ther cause of suffering leading to endless rebirth is desire.
    3. Release from pain can be achieved only by abandoning desire.
    4. The last truth concerns the way out of circle of suffering and rebirth.


    The  chart, to guide man along this path is embodied in a series of precepts called the eight fold path, which leads to wisdom, calmness, knowledge, enlightenment and release. The eight rules to be adhered to are:-

    • Right views
    • Right aspiration
    • Right speech
    • Right livelihood
    • Right effort
    • Right mindfulness
    • Right meditation

    The true pilgrim of the eight fold path is led to sainthood and salvation.

    Buddhism later developed two forms : Mahayana and Hinayana.




    • Siddharta or Gautam Buddha was born in 563 B.C. at Lumbini near Kapilvastu (Nepal).


    • He belonged to the Sakya Kashthriya family.


    • At the age of 29, Buddha left his home (Mahaniskarmana or the great going forth).


    • He attained perfect knowledge at the age of 35 on the 49th day of his mediatation at Bodh Gaya under a papal tree on the bank of Niranjana river.


    • Gautam Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath (Deer park) in Benaras.
      This is known as the turning of the wheel of law or Dharmachakraparivartana.


    • Buddha passed away at the age of 80 in 483 BC at Kusinagar.







    1. Hinayana (Lesser Vehicle): Believed the original teaching of Buddha and individual effort or salvation.
    • Its minor sects include Therveda, Sthavirvadnis, Sarvastavadins, Sautantrikas, Sammitiya.


    1. Mahayana (Greater vehicle): Gave prominence to boddhisattava ideal & laid emphasis on liberating all.
    • Its minor sects include Mahasanghika, Madhyamika & Yogachara.


    1. Vajrayana (Thunderbolt): Vajrayana incorporated into it elements of Tantricism. Developed in eastern India under the palas.




    1. First Buddhist Council (Rajgir, 483BC) During Ajatshatru’s reign
    2. Second Buddhist Council (Vaishali 383 BC)
    3. Third Buddhist Council of heretics (250 BC) during the reign of Asoka
    4. Fourth Buddhist Council (Kashmir 72 AD) during the reign of kaniska




    • It was presided by Mahakassapa, Upala recited the Vinaya Pitaka (rules of the order Ananda recited the Sutta Pitaka (doctrines & ethics). Religious doctrines were compiled & embodied in pali cannon.


    • Presided by kalasoka. It condemned the ten heresies. Schism over monastic order, Buddhism divided into Sthavirvadin & Mahasanghika.


    • Presided by Maggaliputta Tissa Explusion of heretics and establishment of Sthavirvadin doctrines. Addition of third Pitaka, the ABidhamma Pitaka to the Buddhist canonical text.


    • Presided by Vasumitra and Asvaghosha. Division of Buddhism into two broad sets Mahayana and Hinayan.



    • Jainism was founded by Vardhamana Mahavira, the last and the 24th


    • Vardhaman was born in 540 BC Kundagrams (Vaishali).


    • His father Siddharta was the head of the Jantrika Kshatriya clan and his mother Trisala was a Lichechhavi princess.


    • Mahavira left home at the age of 30 and wandered for 12 years during which he never changed clothes & finally abandoned therein.


    • In the 13th year at the age of 42, he attained the perfect knowledge (kevelya) under a Sal tree on the banks of Rijupalika near village Jrimbhikagrama.


    • From now onwards he was called Jina (the conqueror), Nigrantha (free from all bonds) and Mahavira (the brave).


    • Mahavira passed away at the age of 72 in 468 BC at Pavanpuri.







    Mahavira added Brahmacharya (Celibacy) to the four teachings of Parshvanatha: Satya (non lying) Ahimsa (non-injury); Asatya (non-stealing) and Aparigraha (non-possession).

    • The concept of God was irrelevant for him mid placed it below the Jina.


    • Jainism accepts a group of trithankaras who were deitied man.


    • Mahavira believed in karma and transmigration of soul and that the Universe functioned according to eternal law.


    • Jainism mainly aims at the attainment of freedom from worldly bonds. The sole purpose of life is purification of soul.


    • Purification of soul can be achieved only through long course of fasting, practice of non-violence, truth and sexual continence.


    • Jainism is essentially atheistic arid believed in rigorous asceticism and approved self mortification.


    • Jainism believed in the theory of Syadayada which states that no final affirmation or denial is possible because knowledge is a relative quality.


    • The three jewels or ratnas of Jainism are Right Belief (faith): Right knowledge, and Right conduct.


    • First Jaina Council: Held at Pataliputra in about 300 BC under Sthalabahu.


    • Jainism was divided into Swetambars and Digambars.


    • Second Jaina Council: Held at Vallabhi in 512 AD under Devardhi kshamasramana.


    • Religious doctrines were finally compiled and written down in Ardh Magadhi.


    • Jaina Sects – Svetambars Digambar, Terapanthis & Samaiyas.




    Only in the Upanishads, the Vedanta that is the end of the Vedanta that is the end of the Veda that one finds the fundamental doctrines of Hinduism.






    • One of she earliest religion centering upon a personal God was Bhagvatas Pancharatna.


    • The Bhagvatas worshipped. Vasudeva Krishna.



    • One of the earliest reference of Krishna is found in Chhandogya Upanishad, where he is represented as a pupil of Ghora a sage of angirasa gotra & the son of Devaki.


    • The earliest reference to the deification of the human hero Vasudeva is found in Panini’s Ashtadhyayi (5th BC) in which Vasudeva it Arjun are mentioned side by side.


    • Patanjali also mentions Vasudeva Krishna as the younger brother of Samkarshana (Baladev).


    • The earliest reference to pastoral Krishna is found in the tamil anthologies, where the black one plays the flute.


    • The Greek writer Megasthenes identifies their divine hero Heracies with Vasudeva.


    • Arrian quoting from Megasihenes says that Heracles is held in high esteem by Sourasenoi (Satvatas) an Indian tribe.


    • Quintus Curtius records an image of Hercules (Heracles) being carried in front of the infantry of porus in the battle with Allexander.




    • Mauryan dynasty was founded by Chandra Gupta Maurya.


    • According to the Puranas, the Mauryas were Sudra Prayastva Adharmika mainly Sudras and unrighteous.





    • He ascended the throne in 321 BC by defeating the Nandas with the help of Chanakya or-Kautilya.


    • In 305 BC, he defeated Selukus Nikator, Alexander’s general.


    • Selecus sent Magasthenese as his ambassador to the Mauryan court.


    • In the Greek account Chandra Gupta is known as Sandrocattas.



    • According to Jaina sources, Chandra Gupta died in a jaina fashion at Sravanabelgola.



    BINDUSARA (297-273 BC)


    • He is also known as Amitraghata or slayer of foes.


    • In Greek sources he is known as Amitochates.


    • He had contact with Antiochus 1 of Syria & Ptolemy 2 Philadelphus of Egypt.


    • There was a revolt at Taxila during Bindusara’s reign . Ashoka the vicerory of Ujjain went to suppress it.


    ASHOKA (273-232 BC)

    • According to Mahavamsa, Ashoka killed his 99 brothers & then came to the throne.


    • He fought the Kalinga War in 260-61 BC.


    • Ashoka was converted to Buddhist just after the war in 261 BC by Nigrodha a boy monk.


    • The third Buddhist council was held at Pataliputra during his reign in250 BC.


    • Ashoka expounded the policy of Dhamma to eliminate social tensions and sectarian conflicts A: to promote harmonious relationship between diverse elements of his vast empire.


    • He donated caves in the Barabara hills to Ajivikas.





    • He denoted Nagarjune caves to Ajivikas.





    • Samprati was a Jaina.


    • HE had two capitals-one at Pataliputra and the other at Ujjain.




    • He was the last ruler.


    • The Mauryan dynasty came to an end in 85 BC when Brighadatta was killed by his commandor- in Chief Pushyaamitra Sunga.



    Ist Major Rock, edict: Banning of festivals, kitchen regulations.


    IInd Major Rock edict: Welfare activities medical facilities for men & animals, Planting of herbs, digging of wells etc.


    IIIrd Major Rock edict: Mentions the five year tours of Yuktas, Rajukas & Pradesikas for administrative purpose.


    IVth Major Rock edict: Advancement of the practice or Dhamma.


    Vth  Major Rock edict: Appointment of Dhamma Mahamattas for preaching Dhamma.


    VIth  Major Rock edict: Dispatch of business at all time whether in women apartment or elsewhere.


    VIIth  Major Rock edict:All sects may dwell at all places (shows respect and tolerance for other sects.)


    VIIIth  Major Rock edict: Replacement of vihara Yatra by Dhamma Yatra.


    IXth  Major Rock edict: Uselessness of orthodox ceremonies, and propagation of Dhamma.


    Xth  Major Rock edict: The king desires fame and glory now & in future by propagation of Dhamma.


    XIth  Major Rock edict: Dealing with various relationships such as father and son between brothers etc.


    XIIth  Major Rock edict: One should have control over one’s speech, must not criticize other’s religions.


    XIII Major Rock edict: Conquest of Kalinga, conversion to Buddhism, mention of various kingdoms on the border.


    Ist Separate edict: Instruction to officers and city magistrates at Tosali.


    IInd Separate edict: The king mentions “All men are my children’’.


    Queen’s edict: “What ever may be the gift of the second queen, it is to be counted to the credit of the queen’’.

    Schism edict: Warning to nuns and monks against causing dissention in the Buddhist order.




    Kanishka, 120-162 A.D. He was a great empire builder. He conquered Kashmir, Kashgar, Khotan.Yarkand and made peshawar his capital. Like Ashoka, he was a great patron of Buddhism.But the Buddhism of his time was of the new type called Mahayana or Great Vehicle. His fame rests on his conquests of regions in Centreal Asia and Indianisation of khotan areas : Gandhara School of Art was patronized by him. He was a mighty conqueror and a great empire builder. The famous Indian physician Charak and Buddhist lawyer Nagarjun liver during his reign.


    GUPTA DYNASTY (320-550 A.D)


    With the rise of Gupta Dynasty, the history of India entered a new era.India became a strong national empire. The Guptas saved golden age of Hindu India.


    Samudra Gupta, 330-375 A.D.: He was the son and successor of Chandra Gupta I. On account of his great conquests, he is known as the Indian Napoleon.He received homage and tribute even from the Deccan rulers.Many foreign kings entered into diplomatic relations with him. He was a versatile genius, a great warrior, an accomplished ruler, a musician, poet and scholar.


    Chandra gupta II (Vikramaditya: The son of Power) 375-413 A.D. He succeeded his father Samudra Gupta in 375 A.D. He was a renowned warrior and an accomplished ruler. He drove away the foreigners from India. The Chinse traveler Fahien visited India Napoleon. He received homage and tribute even from the Deccan rulers. Many foreign Kings entered into diplomatic relations with him. He was a versatile genius, a great warrior, an accomplished ruler, a musician, poet and scholar.


    Chandra Gupta II (Vikramaditya :  The son of Power) 375-413 A.D. He succeeded his father Samudra Gupta in 375 A.D. He was a renowned warrior and an accomplished ruler. He drove away the foreigners from India. The Chinse traveler Fahien visited India in his time. Fahien says that the county was rich and the people led a highly moral and honest life. He was a great patron of art and learning.



                                                    Gupta Society

    The four-fold caste distinction continued to be the key-note of society and became much pronounced. During the Gupta period, the influx of and the absorption along with the tribal people into the Brahmanical society resulted in proliferation & fragmentation of casts.                                                    The position of sudras improved and they became agriculturists. Earlier they were slaves, servants and agricultural labourers etc.                                                                                                                                         The practice of untouchability intensified and the number of chandalas increased.                                                                            The position of women continued to decline.                                                                                                                  Early marriage of women was advocated, strict celibacy was to be observed by widows and the practice of sati gained the approval of jurists.  The first evidenceof sati is found at Eran (MP) in 510 A.D.

                                         Vardhana Dynasty (560-647 A.D.)       

    HarshaVardhana, 606-647 A.D.: He was the younger son of PrabhakarVardhana, the Raja of Thanesar. On the tragic murder of this elder brother, Marsha occupied  the throne. He made great conquests: he devoted himself to the task of peace and promotion of the moral and material interests of the people. He was known for his cholarship, philantrophy and toleration.

    Hiuen Tsang of Yuan Chwang. A Chinese pilgrim, visited India during his reign. Harsha was a mighty warrior, a great empire builder, a great lover and patron of learning, and religious and charitable man. He authored three important dramas in SanskritNagananda, Ratnavali,&Priyadarshika. Famous poets like BanaBhatta and Divakar were the jewels in his court. He was defeated by the chalukya King Pulkesien II on the bank of Narmada.  During his reign Shashank, a Shaivite king of Bengal, destroyed the famous Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya.


    • Vikram Era (58HC): Started by Vikramadirya, a king of Ujjain who drove away the Sakas.
    • Saka Era (78AD): Started by Kanishka to mark his accession.
    • Gupta Era (320AD): Founded by Chandra Gupta I, the Gupta ruler.
    • Harshit Era (606AD): Founded by Harshavardhan of Kanauj.
    • Karachuri Era (248AD): Founded by a small dynasty called the Traikutaka.
    • Era of Vikramaditya VI (1075 AD): Founded by the Chalukyan ruler Vikramaditya VI.
    • Gupta Era (320AD): Wrongly said to be founded by King LakshmanaSena of Bengal.
    • Never Era (878AD): Popular in Nepal.
    • Kollam Era (825AD): Popular in Kerala.
    • Kaliyuga Era (3102AD): Often used for religious dates.


    Historical Monuments And Their Builders

    SanchiStupa                                                           Sungas

    BharhutStupa                                                         Sungas

    Amravati Stupa                                                       Satvahansas

    Peshawar Stupa                                                      Kanishka

    SarnathStupa                                                          Guptas

    Chaitya of Karle                                                      Satvahanas

    Chaitya of Bhuja                                                     Satvahanas

    Ajanta Painting                                                       Guptas

    Shore temple (Mahabaliputam)                                NarasimhaII(Pallava)

    Kailashnath temple (Ranchipuram)                          NarasimhaII(Pallava)

    VailkunthaPermual Temple (Kanchipuram)              NardinVerman II

    Virupaksa temple (Pattadkal)                                   Chalukyas of Badami

    Dasavatara temple (Deogarh)                                   Guptas

    Iron pillar at Delhi                                                   Chandra Gupta II

    Mahabodhi temple (Bodh Gaya)                               Palas




    Ravikriti                                                     Pulkesin (Chalukya)

    Vakapatiraja                                               Yasovarman of Kanauj 720 AD

    Bhavabhuti                                                 Yasovarman of Kanauj

    Harisena                                                     Samudra Gupta

    Kalidas                                                       Chandra Gupta II (Gupta)

    Amarsimha                                                 Chandra Gupta II

    Rajshekhara                                                Mahendrapal&mahipal (GurjaraPartihara)

    Somedeva                                                   Prithviraj III

    Chandrabardai                                            PrithvirajChauhan

    Banabhatta                                                 Harsha

    Dandin                                                       Narasimhavarmun (Pallava)

    Bharavi                                                      SimhaVishu (Pallava)

    Gunadhyay                                                 Hala (Satvahana)

    Mahavirachararya                                       Amogvarsrha (Rashtrakuta)

    Jinsena                                                       Amogvarsrha

    Saktiyana                                                   Amogvarsrha

    Jaidev                                                         LakshmanSena (Bengal)

    Bilhana                                                      Vikdramaditya VI (Chalukya of Kalyani)

    Vijayaneshwar                                            Vikdramaditya VI

    Lakshmidhara                                             Govindchanddra (Gadhavalas of Kanauj)

    Sri Karsha                                                  Jai Chand (Kanauj)

    Hemchandra                                               Jai SinhaSidhraj (Solanki of Anhilwari)

    Kalhan                                                       Harsha of Kashmir

    Firdausi                                                      Mahmud Gazni

    Amir Khusro                                              AlauddinKhilji

    Abdul Fazal                                                Akbar

    Faizi                                                           Akbar

    Badauni                                                      Akbar





    Indica                           Megasthanese                           Arthasastra                               kautilya

    Ashtadhyayi                 Panini                                       mahabhasya                              Patanjali

    Aihole Prasasti              Ravi Kirti                                 Surya Sidhanta                          Aryabhatta

    Aryabhatiya                  Aryabhatta                                Brihat Samhita              Varahihara

    Amarkosa                     Amar Singh                              Harshacharita                            Banabhatta

    Kadambari                    Banabhatta                               Rajatarangani                            Kalhan

    Ratnavali                      Harshavardhana                        Priyadarsika                  Hashavardhana

    Kumarsambhava           Kalidas                                     Raghuvansam                           Kalidas

    Meghadutam                     Kalidas                                     Ritusamhara                             Kalidas

    Malvikagnimitra           Kalidas                                     Kama Sutra                              Vatsyayana

    Panchtantra                   Vishnu Sharma                         Budhacharita                            Ashwaghosh

    Brihata Katha                Gunadhyay                               Nyayabhasya                            Vatsyayan

    Daskumar Charita         Dandin                                     Jankiharan                                Kumardas

    Kiratayuniya                 Bharavi                                    Bhattikayva                              Bhatti

    Sisupal Vadha               Magha                                      Ram Charita                             Sandhyakara

    Caurapancasika             Bilhana                                    Vikramadevacharita                  Bilhana

    Natya Sastra                 Bharata                                    Svapanavasavadatta                  Bhasa

    Mricchkatika                Sudraka                                    Mudraraksasa                            Visakhadata

    Devchandragupta          Visakhadata                              Mattavilasa                   Mahendravaman

    Malati Madhava            Bhavabhuti                               Mahaviratharita            Bhavabhuti

    Uttara Ramacharita       Bhavabhuti                               Vasavadatta                              Suberndhu

    Gaudavadha                  Vakapati                                   Saptasataka                   Hala (Satvahanaking)



    Pulkeshin I was the founder of this dynasty. He made Kanchi or Modern Badami his capital. His grandson Pulkeshin II (609-642) was the most distinguished ruler of his dynasty. He measured swords with King Harsha and defeated him on the bank of the Narmada.


    • The directly administered areas were divided into Rashtras and Vishyas. of villages in a Vishaya (or district) was from 1000 to 4000.                                                   Vishaya was divided into Bhukti was equal to 50-70 villages. In other words, Rashtra = Province, Vishaya= district;  bhukti = a smaller unit.
    • In Pala and Pratihara Kingdoms, the situation was like this:                                                                         Bhukti = Province; mandala or vishaya = district:                                                                                                   the unit below vishaya was patla.                                                                                                                               Jainism was patronized by Amoghavarsha I, Rashtrakuta, Krishna II Raashtrakuta (878-914), Indra III Rashtrakuta (939-95), and Indra IV Rashtrakuta.

    Satish Chandra considers India III and Krishan II as the greatest Rashtrakuta rulers.

    All the officials were paid by giving them grants of rent-free land in the Rashtrakuta period.

    Pallavas laid the foundation of the great reformation (in religion) which took place in the 8th century.

    The chola kingdom was located between the pennar and the velur-rivers.



    Vindhyasakti : The founder or Vakataka dynasty, probably ruled from A.D 250-270.                                     Bhavabhuti Ruled from A.D 270 to ad 330.                                                                                                       Bhavabhuti Ruled from A.D 330 to A.D 350 contemporary of Samudragupta.                                                         Prithvisena I : A.D 350-400 he was the father of  Rudrasena II (Son in law of ChandragtiptaII). Pravarasena II (or Damodarsena) : the second son of Rudrasena II ruled from A.D 420 to A.D 450. Founded Pravarapur. Authored Setubandh, a Kavya in Prakrit.


    Arab Invasion of Sind, 712 A.d,. Mohammad Bin Qasin conquered Sind and Multan, but the Arabs failed to extend their ominions. So they could not set up a permanent Kingdom in India.

    MAHMUD GHAZNI (997-1030 A.D.)

    He succeeded to the throne of Ghazni in 997 after the death of his father Subuktgin. Mahnnid Ghazni was a great conqueror and one of the greatest rulers of Asia. Mahmud Ghanavi carried out his ambition of building up Asian empire. His 17 invasions of India (1000-1026) were carried out only to fulfill that ambition as the booty provided the necessary finances. His repeated invasions weakened the Indian rulers and paved the way  for the work of Mohammad Ghori. Once again the North-West passes were opened and thus the insularity of the country was broken. The famous  Persian poet Firdausi lived in his court and wrote the famous Pesian work the Shahnama.

    MOHAMMAD GHORI(1186-1206 A.D.)

    Mohammad Ghori, 1186-1205. In 1186, he occupied Lahore. In 1191 he was defeated by Prithviraj, the ruler of Jmer and Delhi in the First Baltic of Tarain. In 1192, Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj at Tarain (Thanesar). This marked the commencement of permanent Muslim rule in India. He then occupied Ajmer, Delhi, Kannauj, Banaras, Gwalior, etc. Mohammad Ghori is known as the founder of the Muslim rule in India.

    DELHI SULTANATE                                                                                                                                         SLAVE DYNASTY (1206-1290 A.D.)

    Qutab-ud-din Aibak, 1206-1210: He was a slave and one of the generals of Mohammad Ghori. After Ghori’s death he became the ruler of his Indian possessions. He founded the Slave Dynasty. His great contribution to Islam is that he made India an independent political entity ruled by Muslims.                                     He was famous for his generosity and was called Lakh Baksha (giver or lakhs of rupees).                                              Iltutmish, 1211-1236 :  he was the son-in-law of Qutab-ud-din Aibak. He made many conquests, and became the overlord or the owner of whole of Northern India. He was the savior of the Delhi Sultanate at a very critical time. He completed the Qutub Minar, which was begun by Qutub-ud-din.                                    Razia Begum, 1236-1239: she was the daughter of Iltutmish, and the first woman ruler of Delhi. She was the most talented and capable child Iltutmish.

    ALA-UD-DIN KHILJI (1290-1320 A.D.)

    Ala-ud-din Khilji, 1296-1315: He ascended the throne by murdering his uncle and father-in-law jalal-ud-din Khilji. His reign marked the beginning of Imperial age under Islam. The southern India was conquered for the first time by a Muslim ruler. His claim fame is the secularization of administration and various civil, military and economic reforms. He lacked the qualities of heart, and the pious.

    MOHAMMAD BIN TUGHLAQ (1320-1414 A.D.)

    Mohammad Tughlaq, 1325-1351. After the death of Ghias-ud-din tughlaq his son Prince Juna, succeeded him with the title of Mohammad Tughlaq. His character ws a mixture of opposite and extremes. Some of his novel administrative experiments made him unpopular, and were responsible for his failure as a ruler. He was a man of ideas, but he failed to put his plans into practice.


    Ibrahim Lodhi, 1517-1526:  He was the son  of Sikandar Lodhi. He was a tyrant. His people and nobles were disgusted with him. In 1526 Babar defeated him at Panipat (First Battle of Panipat) Lodhi dynasty ended and  Babar laid the foundation of the Mughat rule in India. He was a great warrior.


    1. Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-1210):  Old system to land revenue continued : Method of Assessment was sharing Land tax 1/10th of the produce,
    2. Iltutmish (1211-1235): Empire was divided into iqtas for revenue collection & maintenance of law & order: the Khalifa or  vrown land was placed directly under revenue ministry & the land tax was collected by amils.
    3. Balban (1266-86): Tried to reform the agrarian structure: Appointed Khawaja in the iqts to check Muqtas.
    4. Alauddin Khilji (1296-1315): He restored to actual measurement of land: fixed the land revenue at 50% of the produce arrears & collect them,.
    5. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-25): Made Hasil or actual turnover as the basis of revenue collection: Ordered that land revenue should not be increased beyond 1/10 or 1/11 in a year: Land revenue paid by peasants to be 2/5th of the produces.
    6. Muhammad-bin-tughluq (1325-1351) : Created Diwan-i-Kohi to extend cultivation in the doab regions.fixed land revenue at 50% of produce. Gave agriculture loans Taqavi or sondhar to the peasants. Created additional cesses or abroad.
    7. Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388) : Cancelled all taqavi loans : Introduced canal and irrigation facilities : Fixed the agricultural tax of the produce ; Introduced an Irrigation tax of 10% of the produce (sharb).
    8. Sikandar Lodi (1488-1517): Adopted a uniform yard of forty one digits as standard units of measurement (Ga-i-Sikandri).
    9. Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526) : Ordered land revenue to be taken only in kind.



    The Chola empire was founded by Vijayapala in 850 A.D.                                                                         Parantaka I (907-955 A.D.) conquered the land of the Pandyas but suffered defeat at the hands of Rashtakuta King Krishna III.                                                                                                                                      Rajaraja I (985-1014 A.D.)  He adopted a policy of conquest influenced by trade consideration.                                                                                                                            He  conquered Madhuraj, Maldives, Kalinga, Laccadives northern port of Sri Lanka.                                                       He encouraged the sailenda king of Srivijaya to build a virhara at Nagapatnam.                                                        Rajendra Chola (1014-44):  he became Yuvvraj in 1012.                                                                               He completed the conquest of Ceylon in 1017.                                                                                      He invaded the Pala kingdom in the Ganga valley  and assumed the title of Gangaikondachola & built a new capital Gangaikondacholapuram.                                                                                                                        He sent three emissaries to china. Built  the Brihadeswara temple at Gangaikondacholapuram.                                                                                                 He sent naval expediton to South East Asia & conquered Kadaran.                                                                                                             Rajadhiraja I (1044-52 A.D.) :  He performed  Asyamedha sacrifice to celebrate  his victory over Pandyan & Keral kings.                                                                                                                         He lost his life in the famous battle of Koppan against Someshvara I (Chalukya of Kalyani)                 kulottunga I (1070-1122 A.D.):  He belonged to the Eastern Chalukyan dynasty.                                    He succeeded to the throne since Adhirajendra had no issue.                                                                    He introduced reforms & made two land surveys.                                                                                       Himself a shaiva, he made grants to Buddhist shrines at Nagapattanam,




    The Vijaynagar Empire was founded by Harihara I & Bukka in 1336.                                                     They were sons of Sangam, hence the dynasty was known as Sangam dynasty (1336-1485).            Harihara I built the city nof Vijaynagar near Hampi & made it his capital.                                     HariharaI (1336-50) was succeeded by his brother Bukka I (1356-77) who sent an embassy to China in 1347. Bukka I was succeeded by Harihara II who assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja & Rajaparameshawara.                                                                                                                              Devaraya I (1406-1422):  Constructed a barrage over Tungabhadra  in 1410 to develop agriculture.  Devaraya Ii (1423-46): Was called Immadi Devaraya Proudha Devaraya & Gajabetekra.                              He was the author of Sanskrit works Mhanataka Sudhanidhi; wrote commentary of Brahma Sutra of Badarayana.                                                                                                                                                     He admitted Muslims in the army.                                                                                                                                     Narasimha Saluva usurped the throne in 1485 and formed the Saluva Dynasty. (1485-1505).                    In 1505, Vira Narsimha usurped the throne & founded the Tuluva dynasty.                                                                  Krishna Deva Raya (1509-29):  Was the greatest  ruler of Vijayanagar empire.                                  He defeated the Bahmanis and assumed the title of Yavanarajaya Sthopancharya (restore of Yavana Kingdom).                                                                                                                                                  He wrote Amuktamalyada in Telugu.                                                                                                             A patron of literature, he was known as Abhinava-Bhoja the Astha Diggajas (poets) adorned his court. The allied Deccani Sultans   destroyed the Vijayanagar empire in the battle of Talikota of Banihatti  1665.


    King was fountain head of all power.                                                                                                       Regents were appointed when the king was weak.                                                                           Brahmins occupied a high position in the administration.                                                                                          Land revenue or sist was the main source of revenue.                                                                                   A land survey & assessment was conducted by Krishandeva Raya.                                                                                      State deman was 1/3 to 1/6 of produce.                                                                                         Dharmashastras  & Smritis  were the main source of law.                                                             Military department (kandachara) was under danda nayaka ( Commander-in-chief).                                            Provinces (Rajya, Mandalam, Chauvadi were under nayak).


    The Muslim Kingdom was established in the Deccan during of reign of Mohammed Tughlaq  and founded in 1347 by a brave soldier, named zafar Khan. The most illustrious person of this kingom was Mahmud Gawan, a Persian who was a minister for a long                                                                               (5) Golkunda.


    1. Ramanuja (11th century): wrote commentaries on Brahma Sutras, Bhagwad Gita and the Upanishad: Expounded vishitadvaita qualified monism.
    2. Madhava (1199-1278): Broke completely with the Upanishadic doctrine of unity of God and the human soul, Taught (Dvaita) dualism.
    3. Ramananda (15th century) (Saguna school): A disciple of Ramanuja, he was worshipper of Rama. He  taught perfect love or God & human brotherhood.
    4. Kabir (1440-1510)(Nirguna school): Disciple of Ramananda, he believed in formless God : He was the first to reconcile Hinduism and Islam.
    5. Guru Nank (1469-1539) (Nirguna school):  He was the founder of Sikh religion. He  preached against idol worship, caste system and other superstitions.
    6. Dadu (1544-1603) Nirguna school : A disciple of Kabir, he was a supporter of Hindu Muslim unity. His  followers were known as Dado
    7. Chaitanja (1468-1533) Saguna school, Bengal: A devotee of Lord Krishan, he was the founder of modem Vaishnavism in Bengal. He Popularised Kirtan.
    8. Sankaradeva (1449-1569): Spread Bhakti cult in Assam.
    9. Vallabhacharya (1479-1531): Exponent of Krishna cult. He worshipped Krishan under the title Srinathji.
    10. Surdas (1483-1563) Saguna school :  A disciple of Vallabhacharya, he showed intense devotion to Radha & Krishna.
    11. Mirabai (1498-1546) saguna school : Staunch devotee of Lord Krishan, she composed numbers of songs & poems in honour of Krishna.
    12. Tulsidas (1532-1623) Saguna school: Depicted Rama as the incarnation. He wrote RAmcharitmanas.
    13. Namdeva (1270-1350) Maharashtra : A disciple of Visoba Khecar, he was a devotee of Vithorba Vishnu.
    14. Jnanesvara (1275-1296) Maharastra : Wrote jnaneswari a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita.
    15. Eknath (Maharashtra): wrote commentary on verses of Bhagvad A devotee of Vithoba.
    16. Tukaram (Maharashtra) contemporary of Shivaji : A devotee of vithai, he founded the  Varkau sect.
    17. Ram das (Maharashtra): Author of Dasabodh, his teachings inspired Shiva.


    Sufis Silsilas or Orders                      Leaders

    1. Chisti order                                                Khwaja Muinud-din Chisti. Qutub-uddin

    Bakitiyar Kaki:

    Baba Farid. Nizamuddin Auliya, Nasiruddin Chirag-i-Delhi, Burhanuddin Gharib, Gesu Daraz: Sahikh Siraj-ud-din.

    1. Suharwadi Order Bahauddin Zakarlya; Jalaluddin Tolerizi;

    Shihabuddin suharwdin & Hamid-ud-din Nagari.

    1. Qadiri Order Niamatullah Qadiri : Sayyid Ghau wala pir,

    Sayyed Md. Gilani & Dara Sikoh

    1. Naqsbandi order Khwaji Baqe Billah & Ahmed Khan Sirhindi.
    2. Shattari Order Shaikh Abdullah Shattari.
    3. Firdausi Order Badr-ud-din
    4. Mahdawri Order Syed Muhammad Mahdi.
    5. Raushaniyah Movement Miyan Bayazid Ansari.




    Guru Nanak (1469-1539):  Founded Sikh religion. His teachings are composed in Adi Granth or Granth Sahib.

    Guru Angad (1538-1552):  Invented a new script “Gurumukhi”.

    Guru Amardas (1552-1574):  started the langar or community Kitchen. Led struggle against sati and purdah  systems.

    Guru Ramdas (1574-1581):  Founded Amritsar in 1577 on land granted by Akbar.

    Guru Arjun Dev (1581-1606):  Founded the Swarna Mandir  at Amritsar. Composed Adi Granth in 1604, Excuted by Jehangir on charges of helping prince Khusrau with money and prayer.

    Guru Hargobind (1606-1645):  transformed the Sikhs into a militant community; Established Akal Takhta and fortfiled Amritsar.

    Guru Har Rai (1645-1661)

    Guru Har Krishan (1661-1664)

    Guru Teg Bahadur (1664-1675):   He was executed at Delhi by Auranagazeb for not embracing Islam.

    Guru Gobind Singh (1675-1708):  He founded the Khalsa in 1699. Introduced a new rite “pahul”. He made his headquarter at Makhowal or Anandpur.  He compiled a supplementary Granth. He joined Bahadur shah’s camp as a noble.


    SAINTS                                                        PHILOSOPHY  Shankaracharya                                                         Advaita Or Vedanta

    Ramanuja Visistadvaita                                                       (qualified monoism)

    Madhavacharaya                                                                 Dvaitia (Dualism)

    Nimbarkacharya                                                                  Dvaita dvaita

    Vallabhacharya                                                                   Suddhadvaita

    Chaitanya                                                                           Acintyabheda bhedavada


    SURI DYNASTY (1540-1555)


    Sher Shah Suri humbled the Mughal ruler Humayun, and forced him into exile. During the brief period of his rule he attempted system: constructed the grant Trunk Road Peshawar to Calcutta. His tomb at Sasaram (bihar) is considered to be a notable specimen of art.

    Sher Shah Suri  introduced the Zabti system. Divided land into good, middling and bad. Fixed land revenue at 1/3 of average produce. The peasants were given patta who also signed the qabuliat.


    MUGHAL RULERS (1526-1857)

    Babar, 1526-1530): Babar was the first Mughal ruler on the soil of India. He won victories in the Battles of Panipat, Kanwa and Gagra against the Afghans and the Rajputs, and laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India. HE was a great lover of nature and he was endowed with literary genius.

    Humayun, 1530-1540 and 1555-1556: He was son of Babar who was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in 1540, he was forced to leave India, he regained his kingdom in 1555.

    Akbar, 1556-1605: He succeeded his father Humayun at the age of fourteen. Bairam Khan, a distinguished general, became his regent. Balram Khan defeated Hemu at Panipat, 1556 (Second Battle of Panipat), and secured the throne for Akbar. Akbar’s fame Din-i-ilahi was the outcome of his pantheistic and enlightened relious outlook. Akbar was a great builder. Some of the important buildings of his reign are the fort of Agra, the tomb of Humayun and his dream city of Fatehpur. Akbar loved painting and music. Among the musicians who enjoyed his liberal patronage was Tansen of Gwalior. Literature flourished during Akbar’s time. Among Persian writers, the most famous were the historians Badaoni and Abul Fazi. Abul Fazi was the author of “Ain-i-Akbari” and “Akbar-. Nama”. His brother Faizi was a noted poet. He translated Bhagvad Gita into Persian verse, Tulsidas, author of Ramcharitmanas flourished during Akbar’s time.

    Jehangir (1605-1627): His reign saw improvement in the art of painting and drawing. During the years 1611-1627 lie was greatly influenced by Mehr-un-Nisa, whom he married and gave her the title of Nurmahal and later on Nur-Jahan.

    Shah Jahan 1627-1659: His reign is considered to be the golden age of the Mughal period. In the realm of architecture and other forms of art, the buildings of the highest quality in the Mughal period belong to the reign of Shah Jahan-the Diwan-i-Aam, the Diwan-i-Khas, the Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, Taj Mahal and Red fort are among his famous buildings.

    Aurangzeb, 1659-1707: He waded through a river of blood to make his way to the throne, His religious intolerance, his policy Mughal empire.

    BAHADUR SHAH (1707-12)

    He forced Ajit Singh the Rajput ruler to submit but later in 1709 recigbused gun as the Rana of Marwar.

    Sahu the son of Shambhaji was released in 1707 and granted him Sardeshmukhi, but not Chauth.

    He nade peace with Guru Gobind Singh and gave him high mansab.

    He defeated Banda Bahadur at Lohgarh and reoccupied Sirhind in 1711.


    JAHANDAR SHAH (1712-13)

    He came to power with the help of Zulfikhar khan whom he made the Prime Minister as a reward. He was defeated by his nephew Farukh Siyar at Agra in January 1713.


    FARUKH SIYAR (1713-19)

    He succeeded to the throne with the help of the Sayyid brothers. Abdullah Khan and Hussain Alikhan-the king makers. Sikh leader Banda Bahadur was defeated and captured at Gurudaspur and put to death at Delhi in 1716.He granted many trading priviletes to the East India company in 1717.

    In 1719 Hussain Ali-Khan made a settlement with Peshwa Balaji Viswanath (Treaty of Delhi) which granted Swaraja of Shivaji to shahu and the right to collect Chauth
    & Sardeshmukhi of six Mughal provinces in the Deccan.

    MUHAMMAD SHAH (1719-48)

    He was a pleasure loving king and therefore was called Rangila.

    Nizam-ul-Mulh was appointed Wazir in 1722 but he relinquished the post in 1724 and marched to the Deccan founded the states Hyderabad.Bengal acquired virtual indepwndence during the governorship of Murshid Quli khan.(1717-27)

    Nadir Shah invaded in 1738-39 and defeated the Mughal army at Karnal on Feb. 13,1739.

    AHMED SHAH 1748-54

    Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded twice-at first he was defeated by the Mughal army in the battle of Manpur(1748).In the second battle Abdali was successful and occupied Punjab & Multan.

    ALAMGIR II (1759-1806)

    His actual name was Ali Gauhar. He proclaimed himself emperor under the title of Shah Alam II in December 1759.

    He had to remain in exile from his capital for 12 years till 1722.

    Shah Alain participated in the battle of Buxar in 1764 with Suja-ul-daulah of Avadh & Mir Quasim of Bengal against the English.

    He gave the Divans of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the English in 1765.

    BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR (1837-57)

    He actively participated in the revolt of 1857 but was deported to Rangoon, where he died in 1862.


    Sultan              : King was the Head of the state & supreme commander of the armed forces.

    : Akbar asserted that monarchy was a divine gift.

    : Centralized power was in his hand.

    Wazir               : Next to the emperor, but Akbar abolished the post of all powerful wazirs.

    : Now wazir was only head of the revenue department.

    Diwan              : Responsible for all income and expenditure and had control over Khalisa & Jagir land.

    Mir Bakshi       : Head of military department & also the nobility.

    : They also headed the information and intelligence agencies.

    Mir Saman       : Incharge of imperial household and looked after karkhanas and harems.

    Sadar                : Incharge of charitable arid religious-endowments.

    : They also headed the judiciary (Chief Qazi appointed to this post.)

    Naib                 : Emperor’s Deputy-entitled the Waqil.

    Muhtasib          : Censor of public morais. Kept watch that Muslims followed their religious practices.

    Diwan-i-           : Responsible for maintainance of roads,

    Bayutat            : govt. buildings etc. worked under Mir Saman.

    Subahdar or      : Incharge of provincial or

    Nazim or          : Subas administration

    Sipabsalar         : Appointed by the emperor, usually a high mansabdar.

    Faujdar             : Incharge of district or Sarkar administration.

    Shiqdar             : Incharge of district or Sarkar administration.

    Amil or             : Collected revenue and patrolled

    Amulguzara      : roads at district level.

    Kotwal             : Maintained law and order, controlled prices & tried criminals in towns.

    Amir & : Revenue officials.



    Dynasties                     Kingdom                      Dynasties                     Kingdom

    Imam Shashi                 Berar                            Nizam Shahi                 Ahmed Nagar

    Adil Shahi                    BijapurQutab Shahi       Golconda

    Barid Shahi                  Bidar                            Ilyas Shahi                   Bengal

    Gahadavalas                 KanaujChauhan Ajmer

    Chandellas                    Bundelkhand                Parmaras                      Dhar

    Chalukhya or Solankis   Anhilwara                    Kalachuris                    Tripuri

    Shahiyas                       Wathind                       Karkota            Kashmir

    Utpala                          Kashmir                       Loharas            Kashmir



    Patliputra.                    Udayan (Successor of Ajalashatru)        Srinagar                        Ashoka.

    GangaikoildacholapuramRajendra Chola                                    Ajmer                           Ajayaraja

    Agra                                 Sikandra Lodi                                    Allahabad                     Akbar

    Jaunpur                            Firoz Shah Tughlaq                           Firuzabad                     Firoz Shah


    Fatehabad                         Firoz Shah Tughlaq                           Hissar-Firuza                Firoz Shah


    Hushaugabad                    Husnang Shah                                   Mustafabad                   Mahmud


    Jodhpur            Jodha                                       Nauraspur                     Ibrahim Adil

    Shah II

    Vijanagar                          Harihara I



    1. 1st Battle of Walhind (1001-02)
    2. IInd Battle of Walhind (1008-AD)
    3. 1st Battle of Taran (1191 AD)
    4. IInd battle of tarain (1192AD)
    5. Battle of Chandawara (1194AD)
    6. 1st Battle of Panipat (1526AD)
    7. Battle of Kanwa (1527AD)
    8. Battle of Ghaghara (1529AD)
    9. Battle of Chausa (1539AD)
    10. IInd Battle of Panipat (1556AD)
    11. Battle of Talikota or Bannihatti (1565AD)
    12. Battle of Haldighati (1576)
    13. Battle of Asirgarh (1601)
    14. Battle of Dharmat (April 1658AD)
    15. Battle of Samugarh (May 1658AD)



    1. Mahmud Ghazni defeated Jayapala.
    2. Mahmud Ghani defeated the Hindu Confederacy under Anandpala.
    3. Prithiviraj Chauhan ruler of Ajmer defeated Muhammad Ghori.
    4. Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan of Ajmer.
    5. Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaichand-the ruler of Kanauj.
    6. Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
    7. Babar defeated the Afghan under Mahmood Lodhi.
    8. Babar defeated the Afghan under Mughal emperor.
    9. Sher Shah defeated Humayun the Mughal emperor.
    10. Akbar defeated Hemu the Wazir under the Afghans.
    11. Vijay Nagar was defeated by the combined forces-of the five Muslim Deccani states.
    12. Akbar defeated Rana Pratap.
    13. Last battle of Akbar.
    14. Aurangzeb defeated Raja Jaswant Singh commander of Dara’s troops.
    15. Aurangzeb deteated Dara Sikoh.



    Prithviraj Raso              Chand Bardai                 Nishadacharita              Sri Harsha

    Kritya Kalpataru           Laskmidhara                  Kaviraj Marga               Amoghavarasa

    Gitagovinda                  Jayadev                          Katha Sarisagar             Sondeva

    Vidhasalabhanjika         Rajashekhara                Kavyamimansa             Rajashtekhara

    Bal Ramayan                Rajashtekhara               Padmavat                     Malik Md. Jaysai

    Tahkhik-i-Hind             Alberuni                       Shahnamah                  Firdausi

    Safarnamah                  Ibn Batuta                    Tughlaqnama               Amir Khusrau

    Khazin ul Futuh Amir Khusrau               Nuh Sipihi                    Amir Khusrau

    Rihala                          Ibn Batuta                    Tajul Ma, sasir              Hasan Nizami

    Tabagat-i-Nasiri            Minjahjus Siraj             Tarekh-i-Firoze Shahi   Barani

    Fatwa-i-Jahandari         Barani                          Futuhus Salatin             Ismani

    Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi    Firoz Shah Tughlaq       Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi Yahya Bin Ahmed


    Haqaiq-i-Hindi              Abdul Wahid Belgrami  Gulshan-i-Ibrahim        Firishata

    Tuzuk-i-Bahuri             Babar                           Humayunnamah           Gulbadan Begum

    Akbarnama                   Abul Fazi                      Ain-i-Ibrahim               Abul Fazi

    Manjum-ul-Tawarikh    Badauni                        Tuzuk-i-Jahanugiri       Jehangir

    Mauyin-ul-Bahrain       Dara                             Sur Sarawali                 Surdas

    Sur Sagar                      Surdas                          Sahitya Ratna               Surdas

    Ramcharitamanas         Tulsidas

    Shivaji & His Successors: Shivaji, 1627-1680. He was the son of Shahji Bhonsle, a Maratha chieftain in the service of the Ahmednagar State. He was a born leader of men, a great general, an able administrator: created a Hindu State in defiance of Mughal power and unified the Maratha nation.

    1627                 : Shivaji born in the hill fort of Shivnar.

    1643-47            : Shivaji overran the hill forts of Kondana, Torana & Raigarh.

    1647                 : Shivaji’s Guardian Dadaji Khondder died.

    1656                 : Shivaji conquered Javli from Chandra Rao more.

    1657                 : Shivaji came into conflict with the Mughals for the first time by making raids into Ahmednagar.

    1659                 : Afzal Khan of Bijapur was killed by Shivaji.

    1660                 : Mughal governor Shaista Khan occupied Pune.

    1663                 : Shivaji made an attack on Shaista Khan in harem, wounded him.

    1664                 : Shivaji raided and looted Surat.

    1665                 : Jai Singh besieged the fort of Purandhar forced Shivaji to sign the treaty of Purandhar.

    1666                 : Shivaji escaped from Agra.

    1670                 : Shivaji attacked Surat for the second time.

    1674                 : Shivaji crowned himself at Raigarh and assumed the title of Chhatrapati.

    1676                 : Shivaji’s last compagin aginst Bijapur Karnataka; captured Jinji & Vellore.

    1680                 : Shivaji died.

    1689                 : Shambaji, Shivaji’s successor was captured at Sangameshwar by Mughal officer Muquarb Khan.

    1698                 : Jinji was besieged and captured by Zulfikar Khan. Raja Ram

    (Shambhhaji’s successor) escaped to Satara

    1699                 : Satara besieged.

    1700                 : Raja Ram died.

    1707                 : Shahu was released by Bahadur Shah; He defeated Tara Bai in the Battle of Khed.


    BALAJI VISHWANATH (1714-1720)

    Treaty of 1718-19 with Hussain All of Sayyid bothers.

    BAJI RAO I (1720-1740)

    Proposed the policy of northward expansion.

    Popularised the idea of Hindu-pad-padshai.

    Battle of Palkhed 1728 defeated the Nizam.

    Battle of Bhopal 1737 defeated Nizam-ul-Mulk.

    1739 got Salsette & Bassien from the Potuguese.

    BALAJI BAJI RAO (1740-1761)

    1750 Sangola Agreement power to the Peshwa.

    1751 treaty with Alivardi Khan of Bengal.

    Battle of Sind Khed 1757 defeated the Nizam.

    Battle of Udaigir 1761 defeated the Nizam.

    Third Battle of Panipat 1761 Marathas defeated.

    MADHAV RAO (1761-1772)

    Mughal emperor Shah Ala II brought to Delhi.

    Sawai Madhav Rao (1773-1795)

    Baji Rao II (1795-1818)


    To establish supremacy in the south there wars were fought between the British and the French from 1746 A.D. to 1763. In the history, these wars are famous as the wars of Carnatic. Eventually, the British were victorious in these wars.

    1. THE FIRST CARNATIC WAR 1746-48 A.D.

    The main cause of this warwas bitter trade rivalry between the British and the French. As, the war of succession began in Austria and the British and the French fought against each other, as a result war between them also broke out in India. French Governor Dupleix occupied Madras and returned it to the British only after the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.


    On the issue of succession in Carnatic and Hyderabad the British and the French sided with opposite parties and a war between the two started. Duplex was called back to France and Godener came in the place and he signed the treaty of Pondicherry in 1755 A.D. According to this treaty Muhammad Ali was-accepted the successor and the British and the French returned each other’s territories.

    1. THE THIRD CARNATIC WAR 1758-63 A.D.

    In 1756 A.D. England and France fought against each other n seven years war in Europe and as a consequence in India also broke out in these two powers.

    Sir Ayercoote, the British General gave a crushing defeat to the French at Wandiwash.

    But as the Anglo-French War came to end in 1760 A.D., The war in India also came to end between the two powers. And treaty of Paris was made. According to this treaty the settlements at Pondicherry were returned to the French.


    This battle was fought between the British and Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-Daulah.

    The main cause of battle of plasseey was disputed succession of Siraj-ud-daulah. Another prominent cause of this battle was Blackhole tragedy. During attack on Calcutta, Siraj-ud-Daulah captured 146 Englishmen. They were locked up in 18 feet long and 10 feet vide room. 123 out of these persons were choked to death.

    The British started to accuse Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah and the armies of the both started fighting on June 23, 1757 A.D. at the soldiers.Although the battle of Plassey was only for name-sake, but it had far reaching effects on the Indian History. The Britishers established their control over Bengal. It also paved way for the further conquest of India.


    This battle was fought between the armies of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-Daulah and Shah Alam and British Army at the place of Buxar on 22nd October, 1764 A.D. The Britishers won the battle. In this battle Shah Alm and Shuja-ud-Daulah entered into a treaty with the British and Mir Qasim had fled. This was called the treaty of Allahabad.

    The battle of Buxar had very far reaching consequences. The influence of the British enhanced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Avadh: The battle of Buxar paved way for the  British to occupy India.


    While working on the post of Governor, Robert Clive introduced many important reforms. He restricted the company employees from taking any gifts or carrying out personal trade. This helped to remove corruption. He also stopped the double allowance take by the soldiers.


    After the battle of buxar was over, Lord Clive patched the treaty of Allahabad with Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah and others. Through its expenditure. The company got the permission to carry out tax free trade in Avadh.


    Lord Wellesley was one of the famous Governor Generals of India. He served from 1798. A.D. to 1805 A.D. His contribution in the expansion of British Empire in India was most significant.


    With the purpose of enhancing the British influence in India, Lord Wellesley adopted subsidiary Alliance in 1798 A.D. The borne by the ruler concerned . He had to keep an English resident at his court.

    The following states accepted subsidiary alliance:-

    • Nizam of Hydrabad
    • Sultan of Mysore
    • Nawab of Avadh
    • Peshwa Baji Rao-II
    • Sindhia and Bhonsle
    • Rulers of Baroda, Jaipur and Travancore etc.


    Lord Hastings declared war against Gurkhas of Nepal in 1814 A.D. This war continued till 1816 A.D. In this war, the British, forces defeated the Gurukhas army at many places and at last, Gurukhas were forced to enter into treaty of Sagoli and they had to hand over to the British, the territories of Garhwal, Kumaon, Nainital,and Shimla.


    Peshwa Bala Ji Rao II, with the aim to free himself from the British, declared war against the British in 1817 A.D. At the same time Holkar and Bhonsle sardars also revolted against the British. But Lord Hastings defeated all the three and annexed their territories to British Kingdom and crushed the Maratha power by 1818 A.D.


    Second Anglo-Sikh war broke out in 1848 A.D. This war was fought at Ram Nagar, Chillianwala, Multan and  Gujrat. Ultimately the Sikhs were defeated. Thus Lord Dalhousie annoyed Punjab to the British Empire on March 29,1849 A.D.


    Lord Dalhousie introduced the Doctrine of Lapse with the view to annex the Indian states to the British empire. According to this doctrine, any Indian King, who did not have an issue of his own was not allowed to adopt one. After the demise of such ruler, his kingdom was annexed to the British empire.


    Gangadhar Rao, the ruler of Jhansi died issueless in 1853 A.D. But before his death, he had adopted Anand Rao. Lord Dalhousie did not give any recognition to Anand Rao and annexed Jhansi to British empire in 1853 A.D. Thus, Laxshmi Bai. Rani of Jhansi became the sworn enemy of the British.


    Lord Dalhousie annexed the states of Carnatic, Pune, Tanjore and Surat to the British Empire by putting an end to the titles and pensions of the rulers of those states.

    THE REVOLT OF 1857 A.D.

    On 29th March, 1857, a revolt broke out against the British at Barrakpore, which soon spread throughout India. Although, this revolt tailed, yet it had far reaching effects on the Indian history.


    • First of all the revolt broke out before its fixed time.
    • Secondary revolt could not spread all over India.\
    • Thirdly there was Sack of common ideal and everybody was fighting for his or her own cause.



    The most important result of the revolt of 1857 A.D. was that the rule of the East India Company was abolished. In November 1858 A.D. Queen Victoria made a declaration. The administration of India was now brought under the British Parliament,

    Change of designation of Governor General

    The Indian administration now came under the British Parliament. Therefore, there came about  change in the title of Governor General. Now, he was given the title of Victory.


    After the revolt of 1857 A.D. for the defence of their empire, the British adopted the policy of Divide and Rule. Every effort was made by them to divide the Hindus and Muslims.


    In the Proclamation of Queen Victoria, It was made clear that the British Government would not interfere with he religious beliefs and traditions of Indians, Everyone would have religious freedom.

    Economic consequences of revolt of 1857 A.D.

    As the rule of East India Company was abolished, so now the British Government took the Indian trade. Many restrictions were industry was ruined.


    Lord Cornwallis introduced a new land revenue system in 1793, which was called permanent settlement of Bengal. Under this system Landlords were given permanent ownership of land. The land revenue to be given by them was fixed. The landlords were bound to deposit the fixed revenue in Government treasury in time. In case, they failed to make the payment, the Government would sell a part of the landof the concerned landlord and would take that fixed amount.


    In 1854 A.D., Charles Wood made many important recommendations regarding education. This is famous as Charles Wood Despatch. It started a new era in the field of education. The Wood’s dispatch is rightly regarded as a landmark in the evolution of the British Indian Educational system.


    In 1904 A.D. Lord Curzon passed a law concerning the Indian Universities. According to this, the Government control over the diversities and colleges was increased. Fee was also raised. Lord Curzon was Bitterlycriticized by the nationalists for his anti educational policies.


    In 1943 A.D Sargent put forward the following recommendations:-

    • Pre-nursery schools should be opened before imparting the primary education.
    • There should be free education for the children between the age of 6 and 14.
    • Provision for adult education


    Among the socio-religious reform movements in India in the 19th century, Brahmo Samaj was the most important. Raja Ram Mohan Rai. Debendra Nath Tagore and Keshab Chandra Sen rendered a praise-worthy contribution to the success of this movement. This movement opposed the idol worship. Raja Ram Mohan Rai Vehemently opposed female infanticide, child manage, polygamy and Purdah system. He got a law enacted by Lord William Bentick made ‘Sati’ a cognizable offence. This movement also pleaded for the education of Women and remarriage of Widows.


    Swami Dayanand Saraswati was the founder of this movement, laid out lofty principles to uplift Indian society. This movement gained momentum, when in 1877 Swami Dayanand opened a branch in Lahore.


    Swami Vivekanand was the founder of Rama Krishna Mission. He founded it in Calcutta (Belur Malh) in 1896 A.D. in the memory of his Guru Swami Rama Krishna Parmahans.


    In order to eliminate the superstitions and the ignorance prevalent in the Muslim society, Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan started Aligarh movement. This movement got prominence after he established scientific society at Aligarh in 1862 A.D.


    Nirankari movement was the first socio-religious movement launched by the Sikhs in the 19th century started by Baba Dyal, who was born on 17th May, 1783 A.D. at Peshawar.


    Among all the socio-religious reform movements of Punjab in 19th century, Namdhari movement was very famous. Baba Ram Singh founded this movement on 13th April, 1857 A.D.


    In order to eliminate the evils prevalent in Sikh religion and society and to restore the past glory of Sikhism, Singh Sabha was founded on 1st October, 1873 A.D. Sardar Thankar Singh Sandha Walia was appointed its first President.


    Indian National Congress was founded at Bombay on 28th December, 1885 A.D. by a retired British officer Mr. A.O. Hume. Womesh Cahndra Benerjee of Bengal was made its first President.


    • To train and organize public opinion in the country.
    • To present the popular demands before the Government.


    • Unfulfilment of demands of the moderates.
    • Economic policy of the Britishers.
    • Ill-treatment of Indians Abroad.


    Bal was Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lal was Lala Lajpat Rai and Pal was Bipin Chandra Pal. They led the Extremist faction of INC.


    Partitionof Bengal was made by Lord Curzon in 1905 A.D., with the intention to split Hindus and Muslims. Due to this, all the Indians turned against the British.

    The partition led to wide spread agitation initiated on 7 August 1905 at the Town Hall, Calcutta, where a massive demonstration against the partition was organized.


    The leaders of Bengal felt that mere demonstrations, public meetings and resolutions were not enough and something more concrete was needed and the answer was swadeshi and boycott. Mass meetings were held all over people burnt foreign clothes and foreign cigarettes. The swadeshi movement was an immense success. The cry of Swadeshi and swaraj was soon taken up by other provinces of India.


    The separatist and loyalist tendencies among a section of the Muslim intelligentsia and the big Muslim nawabs and landlords reached a climax on 30 December, 1906, when the All India Muslim League was founded under the leadership of the Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. Founded as a loyalist, communal and conservative political organization, the league made no critique of colonialism, supported the partition of Bengal, raised the slogan of separate Muslim interests, demanded separate electorates and safeguards for Muslims in government services,and reiterated all the major themes of communal politics and ideology enunciated earlier by Syyed Ahmed and his followers .


    The agitation following the partition of Bengal brought into prominence the rise of Extremists which differed in some essential points the from the Moderates which had hitherto dominated the National Congress. The fundamental differences between the two concerned both the political goal and the method to be adopted o achieve it. The Extremists were expelled from the INC during the Congress Session held at Surat in 1907.


    The Morley-Minto increased the number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council the provincial councils.But most of the elected indirectly, by the provincial councils in the case of the Imperials Councils and by municipal committees and district boards in the case of provincial councils, Moreover, the reformed councils still enjoyed no real power,being merely advisory bodies.

    The real purpose of the reforms of 1909 was to confuse the moderate nationalists,to divide the nationalist ranks,and to check the growth of unity among Indians.


    The revolutionary terrorist movement was largely the out-come of the same set of causes which gave rise to the Extremist wimg; in nationalist politics. Only the revolutionaries wanted quicker results and discounted the value of persuasion (popularized by the Moderates) and grade pressure (advocated by the Extremists). The revolutionaries believed that alien rule was destructive of As to the methods,the revolutionaries believed that Western Imperialism could only be ended by Western methods of Violence. Hence the advocacy of the cult of the revolver and the bomb.The revolutionaries formed secret societies,recruited the young and enthused them with higher values of bold action and sacrifice for the cause of the country; they distributed arms,taught their members the use of arms and even the manufacture of bombs.


    Ghadar Movement was the biggest revolutionary movement for freedom struggle after the revolt of, 1857 against the British Empire. The Ghadar Party was founded on 21st April, 1913 A.D. at San Francisco (America) Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna was made the president of this party.


    The First World War broke out in June 1914, between Great Britain, France, Russsia and Japan on one side (joined later by Italy) and Germany. Austria, Hungary and Turkey on the other. In India the years of the war marked the maturing of nationalism.

    When the war started, the Congress was firmly under the control of Gokhale and the Moderates. The Indian National Congress gratitude enable India to take a long step forward on the road to self-government.

    A secton of India leadership believed that no concessions were likely to be given by the British Government,  A section of Indian leadership believed that no concessions were likely to be given by the British Government, unless popular pressure was brought to bear upon the government. Hence the need for a real mass movement arose.


    Home rule movement of 1916 A.D., in India has a special place in the freedom struggle of India. This movement was launched in April 1916A.D. in Purie by Tilak and in Sept. 1916 A.D. by Mrs. Annie Beasant at Madras.


    In 1916 A.D. an agreement between the Muslim League and the Congress was made at Lucknow, which is famous at Lucknow Pack.


    After the Russian Revolution of 1917, communist ideas began to attract a small section of nationalists in India. The pioneers of the Communist movement in India were M.N. Roy, and others tried to organize a Communist party in India. Many Communist leaders including Muzaffer Ahmed and S.A Dange were arrested and sentenced to long terms of Imprisonment during the Cawnpore Consipiracy Case (1924)


    In 1919 A.D. Montague Cheimsford Reforms Act was passed.


    While trying to placate Indian Nationalism, the Government of India was ready with repression. Throughout the war the nationalist had been hunted, hanged and imprisoned. In March 1919, the Government passed the Rowiatt Act even through every single Indian member of the Central Legislative Council opposed it. This Act authorized the government to imprison any person.


    The Rowlatt  Act came like a sudden blow. Instead of democratic progress there was further restriction of civil liberties. Unrest spread in the country and a powerful agitation against the Act arose. The stage was thus set for the entry of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, a name who had already made a name for himself with his leadership of the struggle of Indians in South Africa and by leading the struggle of Indian peasants and workers in Champaran, Ahmedabad and kheda. He had evolved a new form of struggle run cooperation and a new technique of struggle Satyagraha- Which could be put into practice against British in India.


    The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, in which hundreds of unarmed Indians were killed on April 13,1919 A.D., shook the faith of not only of the Indian, but also of the justice loving people throughout the world.


    In 1919 A.D. the Ali brothers Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali decided to initiate Khilufat as a movement against the British for the Khalifa, as the Britishers had arrested Khalifa.


    Mohalma Gandhi called off the Non-cooperation movement in 1920, because of discappointment with the Act of 1919 A.D., Rowlatt Act and the Jallianvala Bagh Massacre. In this movement Indians surrendered titles and honorary offices, boycotted Government’s functions, withdrew children from Government schools and colleges, boycotted British goods and boycotted British Courts.


    Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-cooperation movement on 12th February, 1992, because on 5th February a mob violence brock out at Chauri-Choura in Gorakhpur disctrict.


    Pandit Motilal Nehru and C.R. Dass founded Swaraj Patty in 1923 A.D., as a reaction against Mahatma Gandhi’s calling, off Non-cooperation movement.


    The movement, which the Sikhs launched during 1920 A.D. to 1925 A.D. to bring about reforms in the administration of the Gurdwaras and to free them from the clutches of the Mahants, is called Gurdwara Reform Movement.


    In order to bring about reforms in the Sikh Gurdwaras, the Sikhs realized the need of Sikh Organization. With this purpose Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (S.G.P.C.) was founded on 15th November, 1920 A.D.

    GURDWARA ACT 1925 A.D.

    Government passed Gurdwara Act in July, 1925 A.D. According to this Act the administration of all the Gurdwaras was handed over to Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.


    In March, 1926 Bhagat Singh along with his companions founded Naujawan Bharat Sabha at Lahore.


    In November 1927 A.D., the British Government decided to appoint a 7 members commission for assessment of 1919 A.D. Reforms Act. This commission reached India in 1928 A.D. As there was no Indian member in the commission, so it was boycotted by the Indians.


    On 31st  December, 1929 A.D. the Indian National Congress in its session held at Lahore passed the resolution of complete independence.


    When the Government turned deaf year to Gandhi ji’s 11 point programme to bring about reform in the Indian Administration, Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch disobedience movement against the government.


    Simmon Commission submitted its report in June, 1930 A.D. To discuss this report and constitutional Reforms the first Round Table Conference was called in London. The Congress boycotted this conference.


    The British Government wanted that Mahatma Gandhi should participate in the second Round Table Conference. To realize this purpose, the historic Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March, 1931.


    The second Round Table conference was held in London from September to December, 1931. It was presided over by British Prime Minister Ramsay MQC Donald. Gandhi was the sole representative of the Congress in this conference.



    The this Round Table conference was called in London on 37th November, 1932 A.D. 46 representatives joined this conference, in this conference the draft of 1935 A.D. Act was prepared.


    This act has a great importance in Indian history. Many causes were responsible for passing this act. By this act-supremacy of British Parliament was established. All India Federation was made, two Legislative Assemblies were established in the centre and Dyarchy system was established at the centre.


    As per 1935 A.D. Act in, 1937 A.D., the elections were conducted in the provinces and Congress gained majority in 7 out of 9 provinces and formed Governments in them.


    The Second World War broke out on 3rd  September, 1939 A.D. In India, the British Government without even consulting her declared that she has joined the war.


    The Muslim League, on 23rd March, 1940 A.D. in its session held at Lahore demanded a free Pakistan.


    At the end of 1941 A.D., the Japanese were fast advancing towards India. The bewildered British

    Government sent Sir Staford Cripps to India to seek co-operation of the Indians at this critical hour.


    Quit India movement of 1942 A.D. was the last and certainly the most powerful movement started for freedom struggle against a result the British were compelled to quit India in 1947 A.D.


    The Indian National Army rendered an important contribution in Indian National Movement. It was founded by General. Mohan Singh with the help of Japanese Government. Neta Ji Subhash Chander Bose organized it Properly.


    3000 soldiers of Indian Navy at Bombay revolted against the British on 18th February 1946, which bewildered the British Government. Though, the Government brought the situation under control with the help of Sardar Patel, yet the event made it clear that now the British could not rule India for long.


    According to the announcement of the British Prime Minister Lord Attlee on 15th March, 1946, a mission was sent to India to find a solution to the political problem of India. This mission of three ministers was called Cabinet Mission.


    When in the elections for constituent assembly Muslim League got only 73 seats against 211 of congress, on 16th August, 1946 A.D. Muslim League decided to take direct action to obtain Pakistan. On that day the Muslims killed hundreds of Hindus and plundered property worth crores.


    According to the Cabinet Mission Interim Government was set up on 2nd Sept. , 1946 A.D. But Muslim League started following such policies due to which Government could not work.


    Attlee, the prime minister of Britain made an historic declaration on 20th February, 1947 A.D. that he would grant independence to India by 30th June, 1948 A.D. In this declaration, partition of India was also indicated.


    Lord Mountbatten, after negotiating with the various political parties of India presented a plan on 3rd
    June, 1947 A.D. The main feature of the plan was that the country would be divided into two dominions i.e. India and Pakistan.


    In order to give effect to Lord Mountbatten plan, the Indian Independence Act was presented in the British Parliament on 4th July, 1947 A.D. According to which, two independent dominions, namely India and Pakistan shall be set upon August 15, 1947.


    The effects of partition were very bad: The Muslims in Pakistan began to kill the Hindus and Sikhs and plundered their property. As a retaliation, Hindus and Sikhs also began to kill the Muslims in India. Nowhere in the history of the world is found such an example of exchange of population.


    Mahatma Gandhi rendered the most significant contribution in attaining of Independence for India. Unfortunately on the evening of 30th January, 1948 A.D., Nathu Ram Godse shot him and martyred this great son of India and Angel of Peace.






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