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    Law Giri




    1. Favourite Player or Famous Sports Personality:

    India has produced great men from time to time. My favourite is Sachin Tendulkar. Today, he is regarded as one of the best batsmen in the world in the field of cricket. This man has great passion for cricket right form his childhood days. His birthplace is Mumbai. At the very young age of 17, he was selected in the Indian cricket team. Starting his career as a middle order batsman, it took about 75 matches for him to score his first century in one-day cricket. Later, he started to open the innings in one day cricket. He has already won several matches for India. A time was there in the past when Indian team was called a one mean team. He has scored more centuries than any other cricketer in the world cups. Receiving man of the award in both forms of the game is becoming a habit for him. He is the highest run getter in one-day cricket. His average is above 40 in the test match cricket. Most people go to watch cricket in a stadium only to watch Sachin Tendulkar. He is holding the record of most hundreds in one-day cricket that is 45. He is compared with Sir Don Bredman, the greatest batsman of all times. Sir Don Bredman himself said one day that he is seeing himself playing in Sachin Tendulakar. His major characteristics are that he is consistent, hard working and tries to win the match till the last ball of the game. He is among the list of luxurious persons in Asia. He is currently 37 years old and will probably play cricket for the upcoming years. Hope this man will continue to break records and win matches for India. He is serving as a role model for many cricketers in India. He has won many awards like Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, Arjuna Award, Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhusahn. When he will get retired from international


    1. Favourite Story (book) of Childhood

    Introduction: All children like to listen to stories from their parents, grandparents or teachers. When I was young I used to listen to many stories. Those were stories of kings, queens, animals and fairies.

    My favourite story book: On my tenth birthday my grandfather gave me a story book. It was a very beautiful book. It had many short stories. The cover was bright and colourful. Inside there were many pictures along with the stories. I started reading the stories one by one. The stories inside were all very interesting.  Those were about animals and each had a message (or moral) at the end. The story that I liked the most was – ‘The Hare and the Tortoise’. It is my favourite childhood story.

    The Story: The story is about a hare and a tortoise. They both decide to have a race. The hare runs very fast but the tortoise walks slowly. The rabbit realizes that he is far ahead of the tortoise walks slowly but continuously. He reaches the ‘finish point’ first and wins the race.

    The lesson (Moral)/ why do I like this story? I like this story because it teaches us that ‘Slow and steady wins the race’. I have learnt from this story that hard-work always gives rewards. Even if we are not talented or if we do not have many facilities, but if we work hard without stopping, we can succeed. Just like the tortoise who could not run fast like the rabbit, but worked harder and won the race.

    We can achieve the impossible if we work hard. I remember this lesson in all testing times. It helps me to work hard. This story also teaches us that we should not be over confident just like the rabbit. We should work hard and not be lazy.

    Conclusion: In the end I would like to say that this book/ story is my favourite childhood story/ book. I took great care of the book and enjoyed all the stories.


    1. Environment

    The environment is comprised of the land, air and water in which people, animals and plants live. The environment is changing day by day. Such environmental circumstances are affecting a person’s life. Pollution is the process of making environment dirty by adding harmful substances to it. Pollution causes imbalance in the environment.

    Exploitation of Environment:  The growing population has resulted in over use of the natural resources like trees, water, air petroleum etcetera. This has created many problems in the environment. There is imbalance in the nature. We are cutting down the trees. This is causing deforestation.  These days cultivated land in increasing to feed the growing population and so, forest area is decreasing. Wildlife is decreasing. Certain species are becoming extinct. It is also causing pollution.

    Pollution is also increasing in our environment due to vehicles, industries, fertilizers and chemicals.

    Also, the industrial development and the Green revolution have adversely affected the environment. The modes of transportation and chimneys of factories are increasing the air pollution. The emission of green house gases has led to climatic changes. The increase in pollution has resulted in global warming. The ice-caps in the Polar Regions would melt. It would result in the rise of the water level of seas and oceans. A time will come when the whole earth will submerge in water.

    Due to the increase in the quantity of carbon monoxide, the ozone layer is depleting. The depletion of the ozone layer could result in skin diseases.

    Destruction of forests has led to climatic changes. It has also led to extinction of many species of wildlife.

    Environmental Pollution: It of much type, those are air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and soul pollution. These days air pollution is the most threatening, especially in urban areas, this due to deforestation, industries, vehicles, aircrafts etcetera. People are suffering from many diseases like asthma, lung cancer, skin cancer and other skin disease. It has also caused “Global warming” and “Ozone layer depletion”. Glaciers are melting and harmful ultra-violet radiations are entering the Earth’s atmosphere.

    To save our precious environment we all should take some steps, like trees should be planted everywhere, vehicle should be made eco-friendly and factory wastes should be properly treated and cleaned

    So, we should control pollution for our safe and clean environment.


    1. Dream Destination

    Every person has a dream. Some dream about going to new place sand to see new things. I have always dreamt of going abroad. Since my childhood I have been attracted to new places and people. a few of my cousins lived in Canada. They visited us in their holidays. They brought pictures of this country with them. They also told us about the people there and their lives.

    I was very fascinated to hear them talk of this country/. Since then I have always dreamt of going abroad.

    After I finished my studies I came to know that I can go abroad for my further studies. I decided to go to Australia. A few of my friends have already gone there. I received their E-mails. They told me about Australia. It is a well developed country. They also told me about the people and their way of living there. There are beautiful places to be seen. The sea-shores are also very beautiful. All the facilities are available there. I can also avail good job opportunities while studying there. So I will not have to depend on anybody for my expenses. Also the colleges and universities are very good.

    Now I am working hard to reach my dream destination. I have secured good marks in my previous qualifications. I can take admission in any university in Australia. Presently, I am preparing of my IELTS examination. If I score good bands here, I well be able to go to Australia and fulfill my dream.

    Nothing is too difficult or impossible to achieve. We can fulfill dreams if we are determined and do hard work. I wish to reach my dream destination soon.


    1. My House

    My house is situated in _________. It is not very big. There are many rooms in my house. There are three bedrooms, three bathrooms and one kitchen. There is also a drawing and a dining room. My house is single storey and rectangular in shape. It was built by my grandfather fifteen years ago. All the rooms are well ventilated (airy) and connected to each other. The furniture of my house is simple but beautiful. All bedrooms have beds, cupboards and small tables. We have decorated our house with curtains, photographs, paintings and other decorative pieces. In one corner of our dining room we have placed the picture of our God. All members of my family try to keep the house clean and tidy. We seat our guests in the drawing room. It is the most beautiful room of our house.

    In front of my house there is a small courtyard. We have converted it into a small garden. There are flower pots and grass in it. At the back side of my house there is a small kitchen garden. We grow vegetables there.  There is also mango tree on one side of my house.

    My house faces the main street. There are two more houses on the left side of my house.

    All facilities like water, electricity and drainage is available in my house. We use electric equipments in my house. My house also has electronic equipment like computer, television and DVD player.

    All the members of my family live comfortably in our house. I like my house very much.


    1. Traditional Place/ Historical Building/ Religious Place/ 2 day Trip:

    (The Golden Temple)

    Introduction: India is a country which is rich in tradition and culture. We have a history full of people and places. There are many places (or buildings) which are famous in our coutry and in the whole world.

    The Golden Temple is one the most beautiful temples. It is in Amritsar. The Sikhs all over the world, daily wish to pay a visit to this holy place.

    It also known as Sri Harmandir Sahib or Sri Darbar Sahib. It is named after Hari (God) and is thus, the temple of God.

    History: Guru Arjan Sahib, the fifth guru wanted to create a central place of worship of the Sikhs. He himself designed the structure of the Golden Temple. The holy tank (Sarovar) was planned by Guru Amardas Sahib, the third Guru.

    The foundation of the temple was laid in December, 1588. The construction work was directly supervised by guru Arjan Sahib himself. He was helped by many devoted Sikhs like Baba Budhaji, Bhai Gurdas Ji, and Bgau Sahlo ji etcetera.

    By construction of this temple, which was different from the other Hindu temples, a symbol of new faith was created – Sikhism. It was open to all the people without any distinction of caste, creed, sex and religion.

    When the Golden Temple completed in 1601 AD, Guru Arjan Sahib installed the newly created Guru Granth Sahib in it. He appointed Baba Budhaji as its first Granthi – the reader of Guru Granth Sahib.

    Structure: The Golden Temple is built on a 67 feet square platform in the centre of holy tank (Sarovar). The temple has 4 doors, each on the East, West, North and South. The doors are decorated in an artistic style. It opens on to a bridge that leads to the main building. I t is 202 feet in length and 21 feet in width. The top is dome shaped. It is plated with gold.

    Importance:  It has both historical and religious importance. It is also a symbol of our tradition and culture. It is the pilgrimage centre (Tirath) of Sikh Nation. Many people from all over the world come here to pay their obeisance (to pray). The atmosphere gives peace of mind and happiness to one’s soul.


    1. Embarrassing Moment

    There are some moments of life which you like to remember. They give you happiness and you can laugh. But there are some moments in life which bring you nothing but embarrassment. Unluckily many people have to go through a situation which they would never want to see or face again. There is one embarrassing moment of my life which I would like to share with you.

    A few months ago I went to the shop near my house. I wanted to buy few things for my daily use. I entered the shop. There were many people there as it was evening time. I asked the salesman for the things which I need. He collected all of these the packed there in a bag. He handed the bill and the bag to me. I went to the cash counter to pay the bill. The bill amount was Rupees 275/-. There were many people at the cash counter. I stood in the queue (line). When my turn came I put my hand in my pocket to take out my wallet/ purse. To my dismay, my pocket was empty. I had forgotten my purse / wallet at home. I was shocked and confused. The man at the counter looked at me with impatience. There was a long line of people behind me who were waiting for their turn. I felt so embarrassed. I did not know what to do. I started explaining my situation to the cash clerk. He looked to me with a funny expression. I requested him to keep my bag with him and I implored that I will go back home and will get the money to pay the bill. He smiled and agreed. All the people who were watching me seemed to be laughing at me in their hearts. I felt really embarrassed.

    I ran home and got the money. I paid the bill and got my things. After that I could not get myself to go to that shop again till many days. I can never forget his incident. It was the most embarrassing moment of my life.


    1. First Day at College

    A college is a place for higher learning after a school. Every teenager feels thrilled to join a college because there are no strict rules and regulations related to dressing and fashion. A college moreover is a place to enjoy the youth and to make a lot of friends.

    How the day was:  Like every other student I was also nervous to go to my college for the first time. The previous night I could not sleep well because of nervousness. Next morning I got up at 6 o’ clock and followed my daily routine after which I took my breakfast at around 7:30. Then for 15 minutes I read the news paper and then went to college with my bag / purse. Ti was a bright sunny d day and as I reached my college I went to the notice board to check my class schedule. I copied the schedule and went to the class where I had to attend my first lecture.

    Made new friends/ (s): As I went to the class for my first lecture one girl was already seated so I introduced myself to her and talked to her. I was happy that she was talking nicely and so we gelled well. Further on we attended the classes together because we had opted to the same subjects. Now my nervousness was all gone because no I was friends with a girl we were both together.

    What all you did: My friend and I went to the college canteen in the break and took some refreshments. We also went around the college and saw the gardens of the college which had beautiful flowers

    At the end of the day: By 5 p.m our classes got over. I exchanged my cell number with my new friends. On the whole it was quite a good day tan what I had expected and I enjoyed the day a lot.


    1. Neighbourhood

    It is the surrounding of the place where you live. The people living in your neighbourhood are your neighbours. A neighbourhod can have both good as well as bad people. Most of the times in a neighborhood people of all the age groups live. If it is a city, the neighbourhood has many facilities like market, hospital etcetera and if it is a village then there facilities may not be available.

    Description of your own neighhbourhood: My neighbourhood is really good. I have very nice neighbours. People different states, castes and religions live in my neighbourhood. Neighbours are very important people because they can help you when you need them. My neighbours are very co-operative and helpful. They sometimes make new dishes and give us also. My neighbourhood has a lot of green trees and beautiful flowers. Market is also there due to which people living in our area never find any problem related to shopping. In my neighbourhood everyone likes to celebrate festivals together.

    A few trouble makers: As there is always an exception, few families in my neighbourhood are not good so nobody talks to them. There is specifically one family, whose members always remain ready to fight with others but everyone tries to avoid them.

    At last: but I am really happy with the neighbours I have, who are very nice people and everyone in our neighbourhood  comes to help others when needed.


    1. Best Friend (Friendship)

    A state of being friends is called friendship. One may have many friends but one is always the best who is known as a ‘Best Friend’.

    It is very important to have a friend because he/ she is the one with whom we can share both our happiness and sorrows together. Moreover, it is quite right that ‘a friend in need is a friend indeed’, that is a true friend will only help you at the time of need. Like all the others, I also have a best friend whose name is _______. He/ She is my childhood friend. We studied in the same school and in the same section. Our likes and dislikes also match a lot. My friend does not show off and is a very soft person to. He / she is from my own village which is another reason of our friendship. We both are fond of watching movies and whenever we get time we go to a cinema to watch some movies. Whenever I need some suggestion I ask for help from my friend and he/ she helps me because he/ she is a very sensible person. Sometimes we fight too but after sometime we make up for or fight and get back again. I am very lucky to have a friend like him/ her and pray for him to God. I wish him/ her best luck of his/ her life.


    1. An old Person in Your House

    A family is comprised of husband, wife, children and grandparents. Most of the old people are seen to be very soft spoken. In my family every person is very soft spoken and caring and though I love all the family members yet I love my grandfather the most. His name is ______. he is ___ years old. In spite of being so old he is still very active and strong. He is the pillar of our family bond and is a very jovial man by nature.

    Grandfather’s daily routine:  My grandfather is very much concerned about his health so he gets up at 5:00 am and after walking nearly for 45 minutes he exercises and does yoga for 15 minutes and then comes back. After this he reads the newspaper. Then he takes bath and worships god. My mother by this time prepares breakfast for everyone so my grandfather also takes his breakfast. My grandfather being fond of gardening after breakfast spends some time in gardening and I must say it is because of him that our garden I swell maintained with properly chopped hedge, lush green grass and beautiful coloured flowers,. Most of our household grocery items, fru9is and vegetables are bought by my grandfather so most of the times for buying all these things he goes to the market. By lunch time everyone is at home except my father so we all sit together and take lunch. In the afternoon from 2:30 pm and to 4:00 pm my grandfather takes rest and at 4:00 pm he gets up and does some of this documentation work. The evening again he spends with us at tea and after that he listens to the holy hymns which are aired on radio. After this he asks us children about our studies and even guides us, as he is quite a qualified man and for sure so experienced. At night after taking dinner by 9:30 he sleeps off as he follows the saying for maintaining his health that is ‘early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy and wise’.

    His importance: He being the eldest member of the family holds a lot of importance. As I said that he is the pillar of the family, help from his side in the form of guidance comes as he experience is worth a lot. He not only helps us verbally and with his wisdom but also financially. Whenever a child amongst us, does really great in his or her academics, my grandfathers awards him or her with, money. I think because of his stable personality and his blessings we all are under the sage shadow of life with happiness and increasing prosperity.


    1. Time Management

    Time is very precious. One the time has passed, it never comes back so one should use time in a proper manner. It can be done by time management. It means to use the time, divide and the time properly to prevent the wastage of time and to do more work in a less period of time. There should be a proper time for a proper work. There should be a timetable. It makes the person punctual and active. Time management leads to success. It reduces the stress. Time is a premium. It should be effectively managed to optimize results and returns. Work done according to the time and work completed within time gives satisfaction. It increases the efficiency. It makes a person disciplined. One should divide the time according to the work. Capacity, and ability and should prevent wastage of time, money and energy. Time does not move with us, we have a move with time. We should give time to more important work than less important. If we have proper time for a particular work, we will be able to enjoy our life with our friends and family. We will have time for leisure activities to refresh and to relax our mind and body. Maintaining a perfect balance helps to fulfill needs and do routine work properly. Every office follows the rules of time management. The value of time management can be gained from the school, time table for books, subjects etcetera. Every great person does his work with the time management. Government also works with time management for five years.


    1. Fashion
    • Different fashions are in vogue these days, fashion means the change in trends.
    • Changes include clothing, food, accessories, body language, education etcetera.
    • Fashion has become part and parcel of one’s life. Media promotes every link of fashion and plays an important part in the promotion of new fashion.
    • Fashion improves the life style of a person and raises the standard of living of a person.
    • A person who moves according to the fashion is considered as an up to date person in the society.
    • A person becomes active and aware, smart & attractive.
    • Life would have been dull and dreary if thing had always remained unchanged.
    • Due to fashion people are adopting western culture and they are forgetting their own culture, costumes and traditions.
    • There is wastage of money, energy and time due to fashion.
    • Trends are highly short-lived and dynamic these change as seasons change during the years. The ways though change very rapidly. Human mind likes change, movement and variety.
    • Trend, therefore is short term, fashion on the other hand is long term, for example: Sari, which has been worn by Indian females from decades, I a classic fashion. But the way of wearing it, its fabric, its designs etcetera, have been changing according to trend.


    1. Favourite Hobby
    • As all work and no play makes Jack and dull boy similarly if grown up people are always engaged in their professional activities, their lives will become mechanical.
    • Professional activities, their lives will become mechanical.
    • Work is done for the sake of money, but the hobby is meant for pleasure alone.
    • Hobby provides change and relaxation.
    • Hobbies are introduced to fill our leisure time and to do something interesting.
    • My hobbies are watching and playing cricket and watching discovery channel on television.
    • I am an ardent viewer of cricket matches and never miss to see what is the current score of the tournaments of cricket going on any where in the world.
    • When I read the newspaper in the morning, the first page I open is the sports column and read all the cricket related news. I have also played cricket at district level.
    • I also like to watch Discovery channel on television. My favourite programmes on discovery channel are discovery of good health, wildlife, science mysteries, and forensic studies. Future perfect etcetera.
    • It is a very good channel if somebody wants to gain experience in life. It is basically an English channel but it is dubbed in Hindi so that people in India can easily understand it.
    • It deals with different aspects of life like historic, scientific, future and health.
    • Watching cricket and discovery channel as a hobby s my favourite activity.
    • This has helped me a lot in my studies as well as sports.
    • I have learnt the value of discipline and team sprit by playing cricket.
    • I have won many prizes in science and General Knowledge quizzes due to my interest in Discovery Channel.
    • I come to know about various places of the world, lifestyles of people, wildlife, machines etcetera just by sitting at home.
    • On the other hand playing cricket keeps my body fit.


    1. Importance of Hobbies
    • Everyone should take some time off from one’s daily routine and indulge in some activity, which please shim. It helps to relax the strained muscles. It makes one feel relaxed and fit to resume his occupation.
    • Taking up an interesting hobby is a very effective way of relieving stress and rejuvenating (restoring freshness) oneself for future.
    • Everyone should be careful regarding the utilization of free time. It is the economic management of time and by adopting a good hobby one can develop new skills.
    • Hobbies can be driving, cooking painting sketching and swimming.
    • Through hobbies we can learn the nuances (delicate details) of the things. It relieves one of lethargy.
    • It gives knowledge and information about the things.
    • Hobbies give the inner satisfaction of doing something. It prevents the wastage of time.
    • It reduces the boredom. One can indulge in constructive work.
    • This reduces the tensions of studies and examination.
    • We have to make best use of leisure time. One must have some useful hobby to gain pleasure in one’ leisure hours. It can become a source of real pleasure.
    • Hobby is an interesting time pass. Some people adopt hobby as their profession. Hobbies should form a necessary part of our life in the modern age.
    • Life has become dull, one needs changes. Hobbies provide the much desired change.
    • These give us knowledge which we do not get from textbooks.
    • Besides being a mental tonic hobbies are an excellent way of spending one’s leisure time.
    • It is said that an idle mind is a devil’s workshop. One should not therefore, remain idle.


    1. Brain Drain
    • It refers to the increasing tendency of the young, energetic, capable and talented youth of a country to migrate to another country in search of their fortune.
    • Our country is gradually being deprived of its intellectual capacity.
    • As a result our nation will become intellectually impoverished.
    • This is leading to great loss of national wealth.
    • The reasons for this are the lack of right kind of opportunities for youth, low quality and quality of educational facilities, less pay packages etcetera.
    • To overcome this problem, good employment opportunities must be made available to youngsters.
    • Such policies should be formulated, which provide high standard education and training to the deserving candidates.
    • The countrymen need to weed out corruption, and understand, hat they are the true assets of their nation and its welfare in turn means their own welfare.


    1. Favourite Artist
    • An artist is a person who does something with great skill.
    • Artists are professional entertainers like singers, dancers or actors.
    • There are a number of prominent playback singers in the Indian entertainment industry
    • I prefer Lata Mangeskar.
    • She was born on 28th September 1929 in Indore (MP).
    • She received singing lessons from her father at the age of 5.
    • She started singing Marathi songs at first and became a staff singer at the age of 14.
    • Her voice has not only made her famous but also many lyricists, music directors and actresses.
    • Her name appeared in the ‘Guiness Book of World Records’ for singing 30,000 songs.
    • Her song ‘Aye mere Watan ke Logon’ which she sung in a concert after the Indo- China war of 1962 made Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru cry.
    • She has been awarded the ‘Padma Shri’ as well as the ‘Bharat Ratna’ for her invaluable contribution to the Indian music industry.
    • She is a living legend and undoubtedly the best singer India has ever produced.


    1. Generation Gap
    • The generation gap means differences between people of younger generation and their elders.
    • These differences may be for musical tastes, fashion, culture and politics.
    • This gap has existed and will continue to exist as long as man exists on this earth.
    • Due to progress of time and technologies, new ideas, new beliefs and new values etcetera difference arise between young people and older people within a family.
    • For example: Grand parents might not lie the fast food tradition, tight clothes, coloured hair of their grandchildren and grandchildren might not like the conservative thought of their elders.
    • The causes for this kind of gap could be that the older people despise the modern values which they call the “computerized” and “globalized” values.
    • They consider the young generation shallow and lacking knowledge and moral depth.
    • Nuclear families and live – in relations etcetera. Are a result of the difference in thinking
    • The problem of generation gap is never ending because all the elders think that they are better than their youngsters in terms of experience and knowledge.
    • Both the younger and older generations should understand that no one is complete without the other and that they should work hand in hand and share their thoughts.
    • Youngsters should learn from their elders’ experiences and elders should adapt themselves according to changing times.


    1. My Favourite Book


    The Book that has influenced me the most

    • Books are out never failing friends. These stand by us through the thick and thin.
    • These support us in joys and woes. These are a store-house of wisdom.
    • These show us the true path of life.
    • One who reads books comes in contact with different writers of different ages.
    • Books contain noble thoughts of man. These throw light on the achievement of nations, science, art and literature.
    • These are wonderful companions, teachers, and form basis of civilization.
    • These cheer us when we feel sad and lonely. These also enrich the personality.
    • I have read several books. But he book that has influenced me the most is “Gita” which is a holy book of the Hindus.
    • The Gita teaches me the philosophy of action. The Gita reminds me that I should do my duty well and nicely and I should not bother about the result.
    • The result is in the hands of God and God helps those who help themselves.
    • A man who is worrying all time about the result can never do anything worthwhile.
    • The Gita tells us or teaches us to face the problems boldly and to fulfill our worldly responsibilities.
    • It teaches us to be a hero in the battle of life.
    • It tells us to lead a life of service and sacrifice, and of love and duty.
    • Optimism changes the view of life and enables us to fight against the bad.
    • The Gita also inspires me to obey elders and help the needy.


    1. Newspapers
    • Reading a newspaper is a pleasant pastime. Happy is the person who acquires the habit of reading newspaper when he is young.
    • The person will never get bored or frustrated while reading a newspaper. Nothing is more entertaining than to spend some-time reading a newspaper in the bus or train.
    • My favourite newspaper is ‘The Times of India’. This is the newspaper that is sold nationwide at a reasonable cost.
    • Almost every aspirant for competitive exams suggests that ‘The Times of India’ be read for success in competitive exams. The modern age is such that we cannot afford to miss at least reading one newspaper.
    • We will be like ‘a frog in a well’ without newspapers. The level of vocabulary used in this newspaper is very high and it helps the students to know how to use a particular word and in which situation to use it.
    • The students become familiar with new ways of learning.
    • Reading the newspaper everyday helps the person to improve this reading speed.
    • This newspaper is the storehouse of information about current events either nationwide or worldwide. The fornt page contains all major current news of the country, but I like to read the editorial page the most.
    • Newspaper is the greatest and the most useful gift received by man with the invention of the printing press. A newspaper keeps a man usefully busy.
    • The day of people starts with the newspaper. It keeps them in touch with all that is happening in the distant corners of the world.
    • It is not merely a piece of paper carrying some news. It is much more than that. It is a powerful mass media.
    • It is the custodian of truth and a sentinel of human rights and liberties.
    • It propagates ideas, philosophies and comments; and criticizes incorrect government policies and peoples and their activities.
    • It is a powerful organ of public opinion. That is why the freedom of press means a freedom to the masses.
    • It tells people what their rights are and how they can protect those.
    • Businessmen advertise their goods in newspaper to raise their sale of goods. It cantinas market report. It gives us information about religious topics, sports, arts and music and about public affairs.
    • It brings to us the views of great thinkers and philosophers.
    • Newspapers throw light on the evils of dowry system, female feticide, child marriage and untouchables.
    • The newspaper contains special articles for women, and gives knowledge on how to adorn the house. It also gives information about knitting, weaving, beauty tips and recopies of good dishes.
    • These are career related article for young people and students. They are having the stories and cartoons for children.
    • These give knowledge about weather, and different crops,. That is helpful for the farmers.
    • There are matrimonies, advertisements for accommodations etcetera.
    • Newspapers can be read in regional languages.
    • These explain the stand of the government on various programmes and policies and also expresses the reaction of the masses.


    1. City Life V/s Village Life

    In the city, life is generally busy, hectic, and full of tensions and worries. There is congestion and pollution everywhere. Life in a metropolitan city is simply hellish. The poor lead a very miserable life there. Most of them are devoid of the basic essentials of life. They sleep and pavements or in dirty thatched cottages on the outskirts. The roads, on which they stay, face frequent traffic jams and fatal accidents. Due to the unemployment, a large number of young people become criminals. The ordinary law-abiding citizens in a city therefore remain worried about their safety. One can see frequent mob violence, communal riots, plunder and rapes in big cities. The people are materialistic and selfish. They do not bother about others. If your visit any city you will find neighbours living I n the same locality not knowing anything about one another. You will find it difficult to locate the house of a friend or relatives in such cities. If you look at people in busy markets in Mumbai, you will wonder if people have forgotten walk. They seem to be running to unknown destinations. People in big cities suffer from many fatal diseases like heart attacks cancers, asthma etcetera.

    Houses are built in a planned manner. Houses are well ventilated, sewerage system is very good. There are more health and education facilities there are more amenities in the city. Street lights, parks for people and markets are present in the city. Sources and entertainment like cinema, discos, clubs, and theaters are present in the city. There are playgrounds, stadiums, and swimming pools. People are broad minded and more aware about everything. They are living in nuclear families. Mode of transportation and roads are very good. The problems related to is unemployment problems are very less.

    Life in a village on the other had is simple, pure and natural. It is not mechanical and artificial. The large land, open countryside. Green fields, open air, bright sunshine and innocent faces make village life simply enable. People in a village are very cordial and helpful. They know one another very intimately. They help one another spontaneously in times of difficulties. They are hard working. They are robust and healthy. They believe in the dignity of manual labour. Despite scant employment opportunities they remain busy with one thing or the other. As the live in joint families, the unemployed do not find themselves as miserable and helpless as the ones in cities. Of course, there is a negative side to village life. Because of illiteracy they indulge in needless quarrels. They waste their money on drinking, gambling and litigation. But in general, village folks lead a peaceful and contented life. Their zest of life makes them express themselves naturally at the time of fairs, festivals, marriages and others social functions. They play, sing and dance. There are signs of joy on such occasions. Village life in spite of its shortcomings is charming and desirable.

    1. If you receive a lot of money, what will you do with the money?
    • If I am the fortunate person to receive a lot of money, first of all, I would buy a corner house which would be in a quiet and calm hilly area near the beach, as I love water. Next I would buy me dream car, I would also buy lots of designer clothes.
    • I would definitely do something for the upliftment of poor and backward class people. I would also give funds to the educational institutes and medical care centers, where poor people will get free health care and children will get free education.
    • I would also certainly do something for the blind people. I really feet touched and bad for such unfortunate persons.
    • In a nutshell, I would like to say that if I get lots of money I would turn my dreams into reality.


    1. A change which has changed your life
    • I belong to a village and was born and brought up in a village the atmosphere in a village did never suit my aim, desires and ambitions. Since I am very ambitious, I could never get the atmosphere in a village that I deserved and looked for. I used to feel choked there as I had no opportunities, no exposure and no way to show my capabilities and talents.
    • And suddenly one day, I heard my parents discussing that it was necessary for them to send me to a big city for higher studies. Even my parents were aware that talent and hard work could be crowned at a renowned place. My heart leapt with joy and my happiness knew no bounds when the city selected was Chandigarh. I got admission into the best institution.

    I worked so hard that I gained position in the university and became the head girl/ boy of my college. I was the favourite of my teachers and college mates. Thus, this incident changed my life because an unnoticed spec of a village suddenly became a shining star of a big city. This was my dream and it turned out to be true.


    1. A holiday which you like the most

    I could never forget the day of 27th December. We were having winter break. Since we were done with our expiations, we hardly had to study anything. And it was so cold outside that all my friends wished to stay at home and enjoy the cozy atmosphere with their families. Though it was not that bad an idea. But we felt bored by staying at home throughout the day.

    On the morning of 27th December, I received a call from my friend that she was throwing a party at 10.00 a.m. and that we would have lunch together. I felt happy because at least we got the opportunity to enjoy together. We had a lot of fun till lunchtime soon after we had our lunch, she announced that she had a surprise for us

    The surprise was that she had managed to get passé for ‘Gurdas Mann Nite’ on that very evening. We all started dancing with joy because Gurdas Mann is a craze among all my friends and me.

    We went and we saw him on the stage. And to further enhance our joy, we somehow managed to meet him personally and go this autograph. That was the loveliest, unforgettable and the most enjoyable day of my life.


    1. Internet
    • Computer had become an indispensable part of our life.
    • With computers internet is the fastest growing mode of communication. It has multiple roles and is involved in almost every sphere of our everyday life.
    • Today no work is possible in any office without internet or computers, for example in banks no transaction is possible.
    • It has made our life very comfortable. We are only a click away from our near and dear ones. It has decreased our distance from our loved ones.
    • We can easily chat, and send e-mails to our friends; even if we want to buy something, we can easily place an order on the internet to get those things.
    • If we want study abroad then also we can easily find a list college and their related fields of teaching via-internet.
    • We can get admission online and all the procedures for fee are also clearly displayed so there is no question of giving any commission to agents.
    • If we want of know about certain diseases and their effective drugs then internet provides us information and acts like a doctor for us.
    • If we are a distant learner them internet provides an effective medium for giving us material for studies.
    • There are very wide applications of internet.
    • The internet has allowed individuals around the world to become more inter connected.
    • The internet has allowed individuals around the world to become more inter connected.
    • Global Reach research estimated that world-wide internet population was 280 million in.


    1. Clothes
    • Clothing is defined in its broadest sense as, coverings for the hands, feet and head, as well as for the torso and limbs.
    • People wear clothes for functional as well as for social reasons.
    • Clothes protect the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of the weather.
    • Every article of clothing also carries a cultural and social meaning.
    • Human beings are the only mammals known to wear clothing.
    • Clothing can protect against many things, which might injure the naked human body.
    • We can say that “clothes make the man”. Clothes are not mere aesthetic ornament but a mark of society’s hierarchy and symbols of the spirit.
    • Not only could clothing transform a person’ appearance, it could influence the actions and attitudes of the wearer.
    • Dress becomes a kind of personal glossary.
    • It is a study of which it would be madness to neglect.


    1. Radio
    • Radio is the wireless transmission of signals.
    • Originally radio, was called “wireless telegraphy” which was shortened to wireless.
    • The prime purpose of radio is to convey information from one place to another through the intervening media without wires.
    • Besides being used for transmitting sound and television signals, radio is used for the transmission of data in a coded form.
    • In the form of radar, it is also used for sending out signals and picking up their reflections from objects in their path.
    • The radio is used in many different ways. It is mainly used for communication purposes.
    • Electronic communication is necessary for modern life.
    • Many people use the radio for listening to music.
    • They can use them to listen to, what the weather is for the day and other things, which are happening around the world.
    • Soldiers and people also use radios in wars because the people have to know what is going on if they are now watching the television. They can also judge the food in restaurants and one can enter contests to win good prizes like concert tickets, money, cars etcetera.
    • The radio is used in many different ways.


    1. Seasons

    India has a variety of climates in different parts of the country. It is such a vast country; nature changes often every month. There are five seasons in India – the spring season, summer season, autumn season and winter season.

    The summer starts in India from the middle of March. It continues till the middle of June. It comes after the spring season. The days are long and nights are short in summers. In daytime, pitiless heat falls. Only a few hours of the early morning are pleasant. By noon, atmosphere gets heated up. Scorching winds begin to flow. People lie to stay indoors. They try to make themselves feel pleasant. By using hand fans, electric fans, air conditioners, coolers etcetera work is done in public building. Ice is in good demand. The sale of cold drinks is at its top. Sherbet and coca-cola are sold at a large scale. Cold water is a great blessing in summers.

    Spring season comes after winter. The spring is the most attractive season. It starts from the mid of February it is at its height by the middle of March.  It brings moderate climate. There occurs second birth of nature. It is the season of life and hope. There is an atmosphere of joy among plants, birds and animals. New leaves and plants are born. New flowers bloom. Spring is a season of flowers. The butterflies move from flower to flower. Gathering nectar. The people feel very happy. Many migratory birds arrive from cold regions. The songs of birds are the most pleasant. Most of the festivals are celebrated in spring season. Spring is the favourite season of poets. The snow starts melting on the mountains in spring. The dry streams and rivers fill up with melted glacier water. Spring is also the season of harvest. The rainy season is the most colourful season in India. It brings showers and coolness. It comes just after summer. It starts from the middle of July and continues till the middle of September. The rainy season brings a great relief in the hot plains of India. But the monsoon winds change the whole atmosphere. These rise from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These make the sky dark with the dark clouds. These shower fountains of water. The field is covered with carpets of greenery. The Indian farmers depend mostly on rainfall. The children come out of their houses they splash water on each other.

    1. Which is your favourite season and why?

    Spring/ Autumn:

    I like spring season the best. The weather is moderate. It is neither too hot nor too cold. One does not sweat too much or feel lazy like one does in winters or summers. The city looks beautiful because of its green trees. Even the flowers are in full bloom and the whole city looks colourful.

    Everything seems to be fresh and new. Looking at nature, one feels happy and refreshed. In this we look forward to the coming winter or summer.

    Summers: I like summers because the days are longer and the nights are shorter. One can wear comfortable clothes and moreover one can eat many nice things like ice creams etcetera. One can enjoy sports like swimming etcetera.

    Disadvantages of summers:

    It is extremely hot and one tends to sweat a lot. One gets sunburns and there are too many mosquitoes and lizards. There are also too many power cuts in summers.

    Winters:  Winter is my favourite season. I like winter because we do not sweat in winters. These are always bearable and if it gets too cold we can wear more sweaters to stay warm. There are also many things to eat like sweets, hot soups, hot dishes etcetera.


    1. Colour

    People usually think that life without colour is dull and meaningless. Our nature is full of monotonous colours. Sky is blue and earth is green. Our earth is also called blue, because Earth’s surface contains 75 percent water. The basic colours are Red, Green, Blue, Yellow, Orange, and Violet. Colours have different significance in different cultures. Mostly, green is the symbol of prosperity, white is the symbol of peace, red is the symbol of danger and also symbol of love. Saffron, White and Green are also the symbols of our National Flag. Today, youngsters like to wear bright coloured clothes but the old people prefer dull colours. The preference for colour also changes according to seasons. In winter, people wear dark coloured clothes, but in summer, people prefer light colour clothes,. Yellow colour is the symbol of spring season because in this season, flowers grow to maximum and gardens get filled with yellow colour flowers. In our culture, we also celebrate Basant Panchmi as a festival during spring season. On this day, people wear yellow clothes, and eat yellow rice. The children fly kites of different colours. Goddess Saraswati is worshipped on this day. This festival marks the end of winters. Holi is the most colourful festival of all because it is specifically the festival of colours. Its historical importance is that it celebrates the victory of Prahlad over the evil forces. In this festival, people throw colours on each other and give each other gifts.

    Which type of colours people want to wear?

    Different types of people have different preferences for colours.

    How colours affect personality of people?

    In different cultures, colours symbolize different views, in our society. Wearing bright coloured clothes is the symbol of affluence, jubilation and young age, and older people prefer to wear dull coloured clothes. Some people say that Holi is commemorated in honour of Lord Krishna who killed a cruel demon on this day and filled the life of people with ecstasy.

    Which is your favourite colour?

    I like most colours but a few of my favourites are red and yellow. These are very bright colours and I like to wear those.

    What do these represent?

    Red represents passion. It is also a symbol of anger whereas yellow depicts happiness. It is colour of the sunflower that is a beautiful flower and symbolize the sun. Yellow is responsible for a cheerful mood.

    What do you know about colours?

    I know that colours have a direct effect on the mood of people. These are responsible for the energy and motivation levels of people in effect. Bright colours have a rejuvenation effect on the human mind and dull colours bring about lethargy. People are becoming more and more aware of the colours and their results. That is why they keep taking special interest in the colours they use for their walls in the house. Some people also pay special attention to the colours they wear. They think it can affect their luck but I think that such notions are baseless.

    Do colours have any cultural significance?

    Colours have always been associated with culture. The colour red signifies celebration like marriage and puja ceremonies. White signifies mourning and black is considered unlucky. Saffron is an important national colour.

    Does the preference of colour change with age?

    Yes, I think the preference for colours changes, as one grows older. As children, we are always made to wear extremely bright clothes because these look good on children. When we grow older, we realize our own preference and develop a few favourites. Young people are not very finicky about the colours they wear. As we reach adulthood, we start dressing up according to the requirements of our workplace and gradually we start wearing sober colours. Old people are usually seen in clours like gray, brown and white, although there are few exceptions.



    Nobody would have thought that we would invent wireless phones, which would be compact in size and could be carried in the pocket. Advances in technology are making electronic equipments more compact day by day. Every year, the size of computer processors is reducing to half. Mobile is another example of the shrinking size of electronic equipments. Many companies, today, are manufacturing mobile phones like Samsung, Nokia and Panasonic. The major contributor among mobiles manufactures is Japan, Mobile phones are now weighing in grams. Every year new technologies are getting introduced in mobile phones. Prices of mobiles have also reduced dramatically from the past few years. Today, even the average people can afford mobiles. Many companies are providing mobile connections like Reliance, Airtel, B. S.N.L and Vodafone. Every company is enticing customers to get its connection by providing new facilities. All the companies are providing the prepaid and post paid service.

    • Advantages of using mobiles
    • Mobile is compact in size and can be carried in the pocket anywhere.
    • It provides mobility, that is one can talk even when one is traveling by foot, car, train etcetera.
    • One can always remain in touch with parents, friends and relatives.
    • It has become a part of life of working people. even when one is away form landline phone, the people can always ring one up.
    • Can be used in emergency and provides privacy in conversation.
    • The calling person’s name and phone number is displayed on the mobile screen.
    • The important names and phones numbers can be stored. Different ring tones can be set for distinct persons’ call. The service of calculator is also provided.
    • Disadvantages
    • It makes easy for criminals to communicate while travelling and to commit crime.
    • Microwaves which carry and deliver messages are harmful to brain.



    Science and technology has a major role to play in the modern life of man. The scientists and technologists have made many achievements in recent past. Among all these achievements computer has it own place. The first automatic electronic computer was made in Pennsylvania in 1946, and was known as Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). Since then it has changed the pattern of doing work easily and quickly. It has also revolutionized the whole world. Hardware is the term that refers to a program that instructs the makeup of the computer. Software is the term that refers to a program that instructs and hardware to do a specific work. Computers were mostly affordable by big industries. But today, prices of computers’ components are decreasing and even average people are having computers at home. The size of processor is reducing to half almost half every year. Today computer permeates the whole world of work. In homes, factories, in schools, in hospitals in office etcetera. Familiarity with the computer is considered as a strong vocational advantage. Many students are choosing computer as their field because it is providing good employment opportunities for people today. Many IT industries have already been set up in India. Computer is a very flexible machine. Different companies are manufacturing different computer components like Intel is manufacturing, Pentium processors, Samsung is manufacturing hard disk, monitor, speakers and Seagate is the main manufacturer of Hard disk. The components of different companies are very compatible with each other. The speed of the computer is increasing day by day. We now have GHz processors. With the introduction of super computer, the task, which the normal computer can complete in 5 years, can be completed within microseconds. The computer is finding application in many fields like avionics, military, space exploration etcetera. It is a good source of entertainment also. Microsoft is the leading company in the manufacture of computer software. The more the advancements we will make in computers the better will be the days ahead of us.



    The Taj Mahal at Agra is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. There are many historical monuments in the world  as well as in India, but  the Taj Mahal is unique among those. It is an inimitable building. Numerous people from India and abroad visit Taj every year. Mughal Emperor Shahjahan built the Taj Mahal in the memory of his beloved queen mumtaz Mahal. The Taj has become symbolic of intense love these days. During my graduation days, I got a chance to visit Taj Mahal with my friends. We organized a trip to Taj Mahal. We reached Taj at night/ the beauty of the Taj was at its peak under the silvery moonlight spreading all over the place; its beauty captivated all of us. Its surroundings were well decorated with lush grass and flowerbeds. There were large groups of foreigner clicking photographs. We also took a pass for photographs. The Taj Mahal is made of white marble. It architectural design is superb. It has foru minarets on four corners with an onion shaped dome in the center. Couplets form Quran are engraved beautifully on it wall, which is again a wonder of calligraphy. Its flowery designs are inset with precious coloured stones. We went downstairs to visit the graves of the emperor and the empress who lay side by side in the graves over there. The green tufts of grass and the green shoots of the Cyprus trees adorned its majestic beauty. Of course, Taj Mahal is supremely beautiful we felt rewarded after seeing it.


    1. COMMUNICATION – E MAIL (electronic mail), TELEPHONE, LETTER

    Communication means to share information with other people by speaking, writing, moving one’s body or using other signals.

    The way we communicate is changing rapidly in the modern world. Earlier people had to travel for weeks on horses to communicate messages to other cities. But today means of communication are far better developed than these were earlier. It has turned the entire world into a global village. Major sources of communication are email, telephone and letter. But my favourite mode of communication is telephone. Today even the average people are having telephone connection at home and it is no longer the prestige of affluent people. We can remain in touch with our family members, relative and friends, we can also ring up people in foreign countries. Various companies are providing telephone connections like BSNL, Connect, Spice, Airtel etcetera. And there are charges only for outgoing calls, not for incoming calls. People are becoming increasingly dependent on telephone. It has reduced the cost of transportation and also saves time to travel. During emergency situation, people can ring up their relatives and friends for help. Many businesses are totally dependent on telephone for their success. Communication through letters till today requires that one has to wait for days and manage or it to be delivered. Letter is an unreliable means of communication as one is not always sure of whether one’ message is delivered. Letter is an unreliable means of communication as one I not always sure of whether one’s message is delivered in time. We can also not express our feelings in a much better way than by letter or email. Telephones are of two types: landline and mobile phone. In landline phones, the medium of communication is copper were. With the introduction of optical fiber, which is replacing copper wire, earlier problems like cross talks are getting eliminated. Future technologies will provide audio visual aid in landline telephone. Mobile phones are becoming very popular in our country. The medium of communication is microwaves, which travel through the air. It means we can communicate while moving. Day by day, mobile phones are becoming cheaper and getting compact in size. The main advantage of mobiles is that these can be carried in pockets. People are discussing everyday matter of life, with their friends and relatives on the telephone. One can order products from the market, book a seat in train or restaurant and give wishes to people just by sitting at home.



    Co-education is one of the very important questions which have always disturbed our educational conditions. Co-education means that there should be no separate school for boys and girls. There are different opinions on the subject of co-education. Supporter of this form of education give the examples of the Western countries where this system was introduced years ago and has proved to be a success. Firstly, the system leads to economy. Secondly, it gives place to exchange of free ideas between boys and girls. Thirdly, it enlarges the scope of enthusiasm for competition and gives better result. Besides, the presence of girls among boys in the same school will result in healthy thinking. Those who appear against co-education have their own arguments. According to the, the system lead to a good economy yet the benefits of such are ultimately false. Moreover, giving the same type of education is go against nature. Men and women are temperamentally different and education to be beneficial must in each case be so adjusted, so as to suit both men and women. Thus, the idea of co-education is wrong. Now if we weigh the arguments of both sides, we will find truth in both. In India, co-education generally starts at the college level where free mixing between boys and girls is not possible, because as it is the grown up stage, they are very much sex conscious and shyness stands. In the is way, this argument has also been able to prove right on the ground. Quite recently, the conception of separate schools and colleges for boys and girls ahs almost vanished. Such schools and colleges and successfully bringing out education. It has resulted into a healthy atmosphere in office and other placed of work. Men and women are seen standing side by side in all the schools and colleges. The women are becoming more and more confident in their activities and enough bold for any hardship. Gone are the days when the girl were such commodities, which were kept wrapped in curtains and were not shown the light of the day.


    1. STRESS

    Stress is a burden on mind caused by difficult situations. In the past, people lived happily and stress was less among people. But today our life is becoming very busy. People are working like machines form day to night, morning to evening or round the clock. At the office, there is pressure to meet deadlines, pressure to reach office on time, scolding by boss and attraction with fellow workers, which are some of the causes of stress. Also problems at home cannot be forgotten leading to headaches and sleeping difficulties etcetera at workplace. Sometimes stress leads to road accidents as people do not concentrate on driving. People are having no time today for recreational activities, which relieves stress like morning walks, yoga etcetera. Sometimes under stress people do things they might not have done under normal circumstances. They regret later for his. People are have butterflies in the stomach when they go for interviews. Their heart starts palpitating and body begins to tremble.

    Among children also there are a lot of causes of stress. The pressure to complete the homework within time and phobia of being beaten by teachers, pressure to perform well in examination and pressure to memorize the subjects before examinations are some causes of stress. School children nowadays are rarely playing outside with other children as they are seen studying till late night. They do not sleep during examination days.

    Stress is retarding the physical and mental growth of children. They feel uncomfortable when it comes to deal with other people. They start suffering from loneliness and they are not able to develop their personalities. Further, when children do not meet expectations of parents in exams, then they come under stress and sometimes they commit suicide.

    We can remove stress by doing different activities like going for morning walk. Yoga people should take out some times for their hobbies. Hours of working should be fixed at work place. Spending time with friends and family members is an excellent way to relieve stress. We can see different laughing clubs mushrooming in cities to remove tension form mind. Syllabus should be less in schools. Schools should make arrangements for sports and recreational activities for children.

    Memorizing the subjects before an examination causes stress. Students should sleep properly during examination days. They suffer from loneliness and lack of personality development. Death of a close person in the family, poverty, and unemployment are some other causes of stress. Sometimes people commit crime under stress. A lot of medicines are available in the market for removing stress. Stress causes lot of health related problems. It may cause permanent damage to brain, headaches, brain haemorrhage, lack of concentration etcetera. We can remove stress by doing festive activities. We should go for morning walk daily. Yoga is another exercise to remove stress. Hours of working would be fixed at work place. Exchanging banter with friends and family members is an excellent way to relieve stress. Researchers have proved that just by laughing with other people without any reason relieves tension from mind. Education should be simplified in schools. Schools should make arrangements for sports and vocational activities for children. People should regularly go outside to meet their friends and relatives. Going for a rip with friends or family members is another way to relieve stress. Watching television occasionally or going to watch a movie also relieves us from stress.



    Vehicles are playing a very important role in the modern civilization. Earlier people used to take days to travel from one city to another. Nowadays with improved conveyance, people are reaching another city within a few hours. Science has made travelling a pleasure. Science has annihilated time and space. Train roars through jungles and deserts and man safety and speed. One can take ones breakfast in Srinagar, lunch in Delhi and inner in Mumbai. The works of years and months completed within hours. Although there are various kinds of vehicles, one sees travelling the road but my favourite vehicle is motorcycle. Manufactured by Hero Honda Company. Its name is CBZ. May foreign countries are selling their motorbikes in India like Harley David Son. Motorcycle is a tow wheeler vehicle. It forms the private mode of transport. The colour of my bike is silver. Right when it was launched by Hero Honda Company on the very first day, I dreamt of having it. After completing my graduation, my father gifted me with this bike on my birthday. It is a six-gear bike. It has the best motor to suit Indian roads. It is a four-stoke vehicle. Its mileage is very good. It average is at the rate of 60 km/liter. As prices of petrol are getting very high these days, more and more people are buying motorcycles because of better mileage it offers. Its pick up power is very good. Its speed limit ranges from 0-160 km per hour. It is a very comfortable vehicle. Its start absorbing system is very reliable. It has disk break technology unit, which is a recent technology. The disk break technology is more reliable than leather break technology. It provides kick and start type means of transport and one does not have to wait for public buses to go somewhere; one can go anywhere one likes immediately. Although it’s initial cost is high, but the cost of running and maintaining it is very low. As the price of petrol will rise in future. People will opt for this means of transport even more.



    The three basic needs of human beings are food, clothing and shelter. Food is one of the most important things for livelihood. Without food one cannot survive. Food gives us energy to work. A healthy diet is necessary for growing children. To be healthy, better quality food is required. The better quality food is that which is hygienic, nutritious and fresh. That type of food can be made at home only. It is rich in vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates etcetera. All vegetables, fruits and pulses, cereals have all the basic nutrients. We can cook it according to our method of cooking so that the vitamins do not get spoiled or destroyed. This type of food is called traditional food. No doubt the traditions are changing and people have fewer alternatives. To fulfill the demands of people, the market of fast food is increasing day by day. It is easily available. Children of the sera like the fast food. Children of this age eat at odd times; so, fast food can be readily available in the market. We can get it within few minutes. It saves time. If guests are there at unusual times, fast food is a good option. As the fast food is not fresh, it lacks the basic nutrients but it is only tasty. China which is the originator of fast food today has more fat children than any other country in the world. But the fast food is becoming the craze and fashion among people. as per my point of view fast food should be taken occasionally and the traditional food should be taken on regular basis. So we should make children aware of traditional food, which is rich in nutrients. They should know that only the sound body has the sound mind.  The sound body can be made with good diet, which is traditional food.



    I have four members in my family. Although we love each other but my favourite family member is my mother. Almost every child is affectionate towards his mother. My mother is the role model for me right from my childhood days. She is currently forty years old. She is a teacher in Government Girls School, Sangrur. She has been in service since twenty five years. Apart from working as a teacher in school, she is also does all the household work. She goes to work at 8 o’ clock in the morning. Before that she prepares the breakfast for us. She comes back home at 1:30 in the afternoon and prepares the lunch for us. Her major characteristics are that she is polite. She is always there to give me advice whenever I need. She is like the matriarch in our family decisions. She is always strict when it is the matter of studies. It is only because of her that I completed my graduation in computers. When she comes home from work, she always brings fruits with her for us to eat. She also brings new clothes for us on a regular basis. She is a simple lady. She does not know till today how to switch channels on television. She is fond of adorning the home. She also likes gardening. We have a beautiful garden in our house only because of her. Here are four flowerbeds and a lush green lawn. She sometimes brings new plants from the nearby nursery with us. Every evening she is seen wearing the plants. The food she prepares is always delicious. She wishes to God for our family’s well being. It is only because of her that I turned into a good human being. She always helped me at every stage of my life. She always told me what a good human being is. She always told me what good or bad for me in life. She has always given equal attention to my siblings also. We all like her.



    Among all lovable members of my family it is difficult to choose my favourite family member but still if have to choose then I will definitely choose my Grandpa. He is very nice man. From the very first day, he gave me the support everywhere. He is the only person on whom I can trust blindly. He is an idol for me. He is currently 78 years old and living in Patiala. He is living alone in his house. Everyday servant comes and prepares meals for him three times a day. There are other servants who clean the house. He is a retired teacher. He is a very strict person, many a times we ask him to stay with us but he always refuses our proposal. Although he is 78 but is still healthy. He does not require a stick for walking. He has four sons including my father. Two of them are settled abroad. He usually visits them but does not want to stay with any of them. To pass his time he teaches poor children and writes books. The usually writes book on Punjabi culture. He has also written articles in Punjabi Tribune. He has also learned homeopathy after retirement. He is always concerned about his diet and exercise. He is an active member of many social clubs. He is the president of the housing welfare society and arranges all the facilities for society members or residents. He with the help of other society members arranges different types of events in the society. He is a good player also. Football is his favourite game and he loves to play it. Every Sunday he goes to play football in the morning. He always remains ready to help poor and needy people. Sometimes he also gives financial assistance to them. He always speaks the truth and always tells us to do the same. For all these reasons I like him the most.



    Television has become the most popular in our country. Today most of the people spend their time before the television sets. Television has become a source of recreation. It entertains all kinds of people. Earlier there were only two to three channels available on television, but today there are numerous channels. People keep switching between the channels with the help of remotes. There are numerous serials telecasted on each channel. Nearly everybody has his own favourite serial on television. But my favorite television serial is ‘Science Mysteries’, which is telecasted on discovery channel on Tuesday at 8 pm. I really wait for this television serial every week. I go nowhere whenever this serial is telecast on discovery channel. It is a one hour serial. The topics of this serial keep on changing every week. The topics are related to science. In this serial, mysteries of this universe are shown which remain unsolved till today. Watching this serial is far better than reading any science magazine because of audio- visual access. The most recent programmes which I watch in this serial are ‘Invention of time machine’ and ‘Theory of origin of universe’. But the programme, which really captivated, me, was that related to earth’s magnetic field. Till now everybody believes that earth magnetic field flows form North to South pole and it is shown that North Pole and South into changed their position after very thousand years. Samples were taken from old volcanic rocks and these have proved the above theory of magnetic field. When magma of volcanic rocks was found it proved the above theory. Moreover now thousand years have passed since the last reversion. So today, the earth’s magnetic field can change at any time. The problem is that magnetic field can take several years to change its direction. During that period, the magnetic field earth will not be able to protect us from the harmful rays. So many people and other beings will die of cancer during that period. But scientists have recognized this problem and researches are going on regarding how to protect living beings during that period. Scientists are hopeful that they will solve this riddle.



    A garden is a lovely place. It shows the best beauty of nature. Just outside our town, there is a big garden. Its name is Banasar Baag. It is a place of attraction of all the people in our town. It is rectangular in shape. On the front side it has a big stonewall. The gate is painted with black colour. On the other three sides, there are green shrubs. Those are trimmed in a beautiful way. I go there at least once a week. There are three feet wide path running along the enclosure. Then there are two paths running in the middle and crossing each other. On the sides of the path, there are a number of flower plants. The space enclosed by the paths is covered with green grass. Flowerpots are also lined up in large number. In the middle, there is a fountain. It gives out water in summers. It is run and maintained by our local municipal corporation. Earlier Maharaja of our city owned it but he handed it to the government. It is now a public place. The various kinds of flowers are the major attraction in the garden. There are a number of trees, which provide shade. There are marigolds, blossoms and roses grown in the garden there are also tall and golden sunflowers. Water is given to plants with the help of water pipe. The best time to visit the garden is morning. Many men, women and children are found tramping in the garden. Some people are found lying on grassy lawns. People feel fresh after taking morning walk in the garden. In the evening, one can see peddlers or vendors selling eatables to children. There are a large number of wings in the garden like slides, see – saw etcetera. Children come with their parents or friends in the evening to play there. In one part of the garden, there are also small cages of monkeys, deers, parrots, and ducks, children really love to see animals. The main thing about the garden is fresh air and that there is no noise pollution. One can see butterflies and bees moving from flower to flower and children running after butterflies to catch them. A garden is a visiting place for many birds. Many birds have nests in big trees. When the birds chirp in the morning, It really delights everybody’s soul and mind. The garden provides a meeting place for human beings, nature and birds.



    My favourite movie is “Dil To Pagal Hai”. I have seen this movies so many times at eh cinema as well as on television at home. This movie is a romantic movie. I like this movie because my favourite actor and actress acted in this movie. This is a sober movie. And there is no place for vulgarity in this movie. There are also some comic scenes in it. It has melodious music. Beautiful sceneries are also pasteurized in it. In this film the hero is a music director. He does music shows. He draws a character of ‘maya’ in his imagination. He looks for a girl who can fit in this character and the actress gets fitted in the role. There are so many dance sequences in it. And I have learnt so many dance steps. This film shows the difference between the friendship and love. It shows that marriages are made in heaven. God had made someone for everyone. It shows the importance of marriage. The hero does not believe in marriage but the love of the heroine makes the life beautiful. It can change the view of a man towards the things. It gives internal peace. True love is not a love for body and it can never be hidden and it succeeds always. It is a purposeful movie. It is full of humorous situations. Dialogues are assertive. Choreography is very good. I have CD of this movie. Whenever I am in a bad mood, I watch this movie.



    Walking provides the greatest pleasure to a man, whether one goes by oneself or in the company of hikers. Trampers are found everywhere in the world. Some people go out on long walks for pleasure, while some do it to maintain good health. It is a good light exercise especially for elder people. Some go out for hikes because they feel bored at home and do not find anything worthwhile to do. In an effort to run away from boredom, they just run away from home. In the new surroundings, they find a new interest. Walking is the common and pleasant form of exercise. It gives movement to the body. But it does not cause great fatigue. Not everyone can afford to play games. Not everyone can bear to take hard exercise. Therefore both young and old like waling. One can see people enjoying a walk on the lonely roads early in the morning. Some people take a stroll inside their bungalow. Some walk slowly and leisurely. Others walk in abrisk manner. The early hours of the morning are the most suitable for walking. It is not easy to get up in the morning. But those who can enjoy a heavenly atmosphere. In the dim light of the dawn the air is fresh. It blows in a gentle way. The twilight of the slowly rising sun is pleasing to the eyes. The birds sing the prayers of God.  Such an atmosphere makes the body fresh and the soul happy. The atmosphere is free form noise and dust. The habitual walks got out of the town or the city. There they enjoy the beauties of nature. They look at the charming flowers in the garden. They look at the dewdrops on the grass. They watch the slowly moving waters of the stream. By walking in such an atmosphere, the lungs get more and more oxygen. The splendor of rising sun is a reward early in the morning. In spring one can see birds leaving their nests and flying in the sky. The mind takes rest in such an atmosphere. The twilight of the sun evokes poetic feeling and waling keeps us healthy and strong.



    When I was in my tenth class, I was working very hard to secure more than 75 percent marks in the board examination. I had even forgotten taking my meals because of studying diligently. After the exams were over, I was anxiously waiting for the result. At last, when the result was out my friend range me up in the morning. He told me to go the nearest bookshop to see the result. I saw the result. I got only 80 percent marks in tent standard exam. I felt disappointed and discouraged. The subjects, which let me down were English and social studies. In English I got only 66 percent and in social studies, I just got 75 percent. I was even reluctant to go home and tell my parents about my result because they were expecting much more from me. But I did not lose my confidence. I assured myself that I would work hard in future. Thus I got admission in eleventh standard in college, I opted ‘non-medical’ as my field. After studying assiduously for almost a year, at last I topped in eleventh standard examination in the whole class. It made me believe that hard work always pays and luck favours that person who works hard. The luck is just the right preparation meeting the right opportunity. After securing 70 percent marks in my twelfth standard board exams, for appeared for CET exam, for admission into Engineering College. I got 421st rank and got admission in a good engineering college. My stream was computers there. Today, I have completed my graduation in computer science and engineering. I got less marks in tenth standard and that prompted my studies. One thing I always like to tell I that one should never feel disappointed at one’s failure. Life is a see-saw of pleasure and pain. We learn better from failures. At last one should always work hard and leave the rest to God. In the end, if we face failure, we can at least tell our soul that we had worked hard.


    1. MUSIC

    Music is an art that deals with sound. Music is the food for our soul. With the help of various musical instruments, the composer communicates with the listeners. They are his medium of expression. As education is important for a mature mind in the same way music is important of r a relaxed soul. Music is playing an important role in everybody’s life. People feel relaxed after listening to music. Their mind gets rejuvenated and they feel great ardour about their work after listening to music. There are different types of music like pop music, jazz music, classical music, folk music and western music. Different people like listening to different types of music elder people like listening to classical music. They like slow songs; young people prefer listening to pop music. They like listening to music, which is fast and loud. Some people listen to music as their hobby. Every housewife listens to music while working at home. Music industry is developing very rapidly. I earlier there were songs only in films but bow alums of different singers have started appearing. Systems used for compiling and listening to music are getting cheaper. A CD player can be purchased for 4000 rupees only with introduction of audio CDs and MP3 technology; and more than 150 songs can be recorded on a single CD. Researchers have shown that cows and buffaloes start giving more milk when they listen to music. So if music can have good effect on animals then why not on human beings. Experiments have also shown that by listening to pop music circulation of blood in the human body improves dramatically.


    Should children be given knowledge of music? If yes, why?

    As the students have to study so many subjects from morning till evening, they get tired. So, I think music should be compulsory in school so that they can have relaxation, entertainment and break form fused subjects. If the students has natural talent for music, I think it should be identified an nurtured at an early stage of life. Schools can play an important role in the regard.


    What types of music do you like the most? When do you listen to music?

    I like listening to Ghazals of Jagjit Singh and Sufi songs of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and Rahat Fathen Ali Khan. I also listen Punjabi songs of Gurdas Mann. I like listening to music mainly during my free time. Also, when i am completing some college assignments, I switch on my CD player and when I drive my car then also I listen to music.


    Do you like playing musical instruments?

    I do not know how to play any musical instrument, but would surely like to learn how to play the drums and flute someday.


    Who is your favourite singer?

    My favourite singer is Gurdas Mann. He usually sings Punjabi songs.


    What is music?

    Music is food for the soul. Music can be defined as the most important art in the world today. The sound of music is not only comforting but is also motivating and revitalizing. Music has become an integral part of the society today. Music has certain waves and rhythms coordinated in harmony, which rejuvenates the inner-self.


    What is the importance of music?

    Music has become as inseparable part of every human aspect today. We have background music being played in factories and workshops. It soothes the mind and body, restaurants and hotels play background music to create a very conducive atmosphere so as to lure customers. Music helps in relaxing and soothing the mind. It is the best relaxant. Music plays a very significant role in our culture. From the cradle to the grave, man is anchored to music. Music is also a very crucial ingredient in all ceremonies and festivals. It is a symbol of celebration and happiness. We find music where there is a need to relax, a reason to celebrate or just a simple desire for some entertainment.


    What type of music do your prefer?

    The world of music has diversified drastically. We have an amazing variety to choose from. I personally like soft and soothing music. My favourites are ghazals and old Hindi film songs by selected artists. Apart from these, I also enjoy fast English music, which is played at parties.


    When do you listen music?

    There is no particular time to listen to music. One can listen to music whenever one has time. I prefer to listen to music when I need to relax and unwind after a hard day. Listening to music while driving my car is also very enjoyable and it is one of my favourite pastimes.


    Is there a difference between the music you preferred when you were young the music you like now?

    Yes, there has been great change in my preference of music. Initially, I used to really like English songs, which were fast and I mostly preferred foot-tapping music. I have developed a likeness for ghazals and slow music, which I used to really dislike, when I was young.


    Are there any negative effects of music?

    I do not think that there are any negative effects of music. There are only positive effects of listening to music, as music itself it a medicine, which cures the mind.


    ·        My favourite author is Rabindranath Tagore

    ·        He wrote many novels, poems an short stories.

    ·        He stands for Indian culture in all respects.

    ·        He brought glory to his motherland.

    ·        He was also a social reformer, a musician and a religious preacher and a painter.

    ·        He was born in Calcutta in a Bengali family.

    ·        He was born in a landlord family.

    ·        He was taught at home. He did not attend any school or college.

    ·        He was educated in the open university of the world.

    ·        He began to write in Bengali at an early age.

    ·        He started a magazine.

    ·        He wrote books in Bengali till he was fifty years of age.

    ·        He went abroad at the age of fifty two.

    ·        People of other countries welcomed him as a noble ambassador of the Indian literature.

    ·        He was officially awarded by many governments.

    ·        His book “Gitanjali” made him won the noble prize in Literature.

    ·        The King of England gave him the title of “Sir” in 1915.

    ·        In 1919, he renounced the title as a protest against the British repressive policy in Punjab.

    ·        Tagore felt that the Indians did not get proper education. He appended this famous school at “Shantiniketan”. Later, this school became the centre of culture and then became a university.

    ·        His poems are full of beauty of nature, love of God and children.

    ·        He is the greatest Indian poet.

    ·        He is called the Shelley of Bengal.

    ·        He is an inspired singer who sings because he cannot help singing.

    ·        His song “Jan Gan Man” is our National Anthem.

    ·        His short stories deal with touching human experiences.

    ·        His stories like ‘The Home coming’, ‘ Kabuliwala’, ‘Subha’,  ‘ The Postmaster’ and ‘ One hundred poems of Kabir’ are unforgettable works.

    ·        Tagore was successful in every field of writing.

    ·        He is beyond appreciation, beyond praise and beyond comparison.

    ·        His best works have been translated into many foreign languages and have been liked by one and all.

    ·        He is a great writer who is born in a country only once in many centuries.


    ·        Life is the most priced possession for human beings.

    ·        Life has three parts

    o   Childhood

    o   Young age

    o   Old age

    ·        Most beautiful, charming and memorable part of life.

    ·        Heart of child is crystal clear

    ·        No jealousy, conspiracy, hate and ill feeling

    ·        Never differentiate on the basis of caste-status

    ·        Heart full of love

    ·        Glorious period of life

    ·        Parents fulfill every demand and give affection

    ·        Nearest to the heaven

    ·        No entered the world

    ·        Away from the worldly affairs

    ·        Curiosity to know about everything.

    ·        Can play as much as they want

    ·        Best to eat

    ·        Having something like magic wand in their hand

    ·        Everything is given to them

    ·        Love from parents as well as from strangers

    ·        Never cause harm

    ·        No worries and sorrows

    ·        Like angels

    ·        Innocent life

    ·        Full entertainment

    ·        Each day is a festive day

    ·        Beas an important impact on the rest of the life

    ·        Always talk about our childhood

    ·        Habits, attitudes of childhood influence the further part of our life.

    ·        No fear of school

    ·        Phobia from teachers

    ·        No tension of money, time and work

    ·        Relax

    ·        Eat, sleep and play

    ·        I spent my childhood in my city

    ·        Return to childhood

    ·        Children of neighbours used to come to my home for playing

    ·        Cried at school

    ·        Teacher treated well

    ·        Played all the time and study was not hard


    ·        Shah Rukh Khan

    ·        A big hit of the society

    ·        Down to the earth

    ·        Has good personality

    ·        Brown eyes and fair complexion

    ·        Sincere, calm and quiet

    ·        Resembles Dilip Kumar

    ·        Given so many hit films

    ·        Memorable and unforgettable roles

    ·        Won many awards for best performances

    ·        Fits in all kin of roles comedy, romantic and action

    ·        Keeps his words

    ·        Done so many films for his friend

    ·        Taken part in charitable programme

    ·        Good dancer

    ·        Every dress suits him

    ·        Sober films and not vulgar

    ·        Romantic in real life. Did love marriage with Hindu girl. She was his fellow

    ·        Has two kids

    ·        Wherever he is, celebrates every ceremony, festival and occasion with his family

    ·        Fond of watching his films

    ·        Never misses any film

    ·        I have many posters of him in my room

    ·        Never heard about any brawl with any hero, director or press

    ·        Never heard about any incident with any  co-actress

    ·        Very honest, disciplined and punctual

    ·        Never boasts of hi success

    ·        Dil To Pagal Hai is his best film

    ·        Has sober image in the film industry

    ·        He is also a producer and owns a production company

    ·        I like him very much



    ·        Altered the life of a man

    ·        Man has proved his superiority over the other beings

    ·        Discovered sea and new lands

    ·        Earth is round and revolves around the sun

    ·        Law of gravitation, electricity and telephone

    ·        Has shuck the world

    ·        Far off places are well0connected

    ·        Airplanes, trains, cars, buses and two-wheelers

    ·        Saves time, money and energy

    ·        Mode of easy working , comfort and recreation

    ·        Television, Radio, Air Conditioner, Geyser, Heater ad an Oven

    ·        Launched the spacecrafts in the space

    ·        Low mortality rate

    ·        Rise in life – expectancy

    o   Radio active material to cure disease

    o   Electricity production

    o   Alternative to fossil fuel

    o   Vegetables free form disease

    ·        Disadvantages

    o   Bane

    o   Ignores nature

    o   Pollution due to industrialization

    ·        Causes of disease, remedies

    ·        Cancer, a pen heart surgery etcetera.

    ·        Antibiotics

    ·        Space research, artificial satellites and to promote communication

    ·        Broad casting and weather  forecasting

    ·        Mobile phones, internet, fax, e-mail

    ·        Agriculture

    o   Method of irrigation

    o   Quality of seeds

    o   Fertilizers

    o   New hybrid seeds

    o   New tools

    o   Tractors

    o   Harvesters

    ·        Atomic Energy

    o   Peaceful purpose

    o   Destroys vegetation

    o   Destructive results of atomic energy

    o   Disease and germs

    o   Depletion of the ozone layer

    o   Flood

    o   Rise in temperature

    o   Arsenals and weapons


    ·        Result of technology, education and westernization

    ·        Nuclear family from joint family

    ·        Fashion

    ·        Beliefs and attitudes are modified and adapted

    ·        Undeniable changes in human relation

    ·        Generation gap

    ·        Pollution

    ·        Adulteration

    ·        Corruption

    ·        Selfish, egoistic, self centered, losing moral value and money-minded

    ·        Forgetting their culture

    ·        Individual identity

    ·        Reduction in diseases

    ·        Tradition/ modernity side by side

    ·        Cannot survive

    ·        Tradition is the foundation of future progress as literature

    ·        Scientific progress of the early civilization has helped to attain the modern form

    ·        High living standard

    ·        Time consumption

    ·        Material comforts


    • Chandigarh was designed by a French architect Le Corbusier
    • Well planned houses and flat system
    • Horizontal construction
    • Well sewerage system and lightning system
    • Wider roads
    • Measured space; Green belts


    • Super station is found on fear and ignorance
    • It is a belief which has no basic reasons for logic and science
    • It is blind faith which has no explanation
    • Not found in India only but also in other countries
    • Each country has its own superstitions
    • Backward people have more superstitions than the advanced people
    • Even some educated people believe in superstitions
    • Different types of superstitions prevail in different countries of the world
    • Some superstitions are attached to the animals
    • If a crow caws on a house-top, it expected that some guests will come.
    • If a cat crosses someone’s path his mission is supposed to be bound to fail
    • If a person meets a priest in the morning, he fears bad lick that day.
    • On the other hand, if the meets a beggar he feels that day will bring good luck
    • Some superstitions are linked with the movements of the parts of the body.
    • If there is an itching on the right palm or on the left palm of a woman, then people expect some gain on the day.
    • Twitching of the left eyelid of a man is considered ominous
    • People believe that the hooting o an owl is a message of bad happening.
    • Almost all the countries of the world believe in ghosts and witches
    • Even the most enlightened countries like America, Russia, and England are not free from such beliefs.
    • In India belief in ghosts is very common
    • They take the affected person to a ghost expert
    • Sometimes, the person alleged to be under the influence of an evil spirit is tortured to death
    • Some people sacrifice their children to satisfy some goddess
    • Some others roll down in mud and mire in the course of their journey to the holy shrine of a goddess
    • Days- start new things like on Wednesday.
    • Moreover, Tuesday and Saturday are believed to be inauspicious days for opening a new shop or starting a new business.
    • Number – 13 is considered unlucky, Chandigarh does not have sector 13
    • An exam or journey will be good if one leaves home after eating curd and sugar
    • Superstition helps to explain people, their failure end they feel satisfied
    • Weakens the mind
    • Creates unnecessary fears
    • Can be destroyed only by the torch of education
    • Superstitions are the products of darkness
    • These cannot stand light of awareness
    • As knowledge increases, the superstition decrease
    • An educate man wants to know the how and why of the things
    • Education makes a person rational
    • With the advancement of science, some of the superstitions are already dying out
    • But a lot still remains to be done before superstitions are completely done away with



    We are living in modern time. We must get to know about our own universe. We could explore the space for the betterment of the future.

    Money spent on space is not a waste. According to my point of view, a good proportion of money has to be invested, on research for the advancement of science and technology. Ti is the natural human thirst which satisfies with knowledge government should be systematic enough to handle or manage the funds in the most appropriate manner both for the advancement in space technology and solving problems for its citizens. Nowadays it is a trend which started in some developed countries like America and Russia and is now spreading its roots in developing countries like India. Man has already shown his victory on moon and has reached Mars also. Many planets with their moons have been discovered like the 24 moons of Jupiter and 12 moons of Saturn. It is via space exploration only that we came to know that mercury has the hottest atmosphere and Pluto with its moons is the coldest planet now. It is by investigation of space only that we now know that Mars is cooler than Earth and its soil has shown some of the components of Earth’s elements. Many astronauts like Kalpana Chawla and Sunita Williams contributed specially towards space exploration. World is spending hefty sums of money on making high tech rockets to explore more planets and who knows it may be possible that certain elements which could be found on others may prove to be useful in curing certain diseases on earth. It is a useful step towards technological advancement.



    Reading is a habit that not only gives one pleasure but also increases one’s vocabulary and knowledge. Reading habit gets changed with time. It depends on personal interest and changes in social circumstances. Usually children who do not have any pressure of responsibility are free to read comics, other story books, while teenagers are more involved in reading material about their favourite sports and film stars. Young people’s interests vary according to their taste and circumstances. They read a wide variety of things ranging from books about social disputes or more effective one like books related to their profession or education. Some youngsters also like to read books about personality development, good communication skills and confidence building to improve their personality because at this age they face a lot of competition in their careers and they try everything to outshine others. If we compare this reading pattern with the old people, usually they read material ranging from newspapers to books related to health, medicines, politics and developing hobbies to kill time. Thus reading habit changes with age, social conditions and personal preference.



    Nowadays, it has become a fashion of keeping a pet. My favourite animal is my pet dog. It s name is Debby. Its breed is Doberman. It is black in colour. It has shining eyes and silky hair. I have brought up my dog since it was of two days with great care like a child. I always give him good diet that includes milk, meat and some vegetarian food. Also, I make him bathe in the water daily with a good soap. I also get my dog vaccinated to prevent it from disease. We both go tor morning and evening walk daily. It is a source of pleasure for me. it is a very sincere and faithful dog. It is very strong. It becomes friends with me relaxation whenever I am in the blue (sad mood).

    • Become a fashion
    • Source of pleasure
    • Sincere and faithful than other animals
    • Have been in service since the dawn of civilization
    • As wild as wolf originally
    • Breed, age and colour
    • Purchased form and at the age of
    • Wonderfully strong and provided the training from
    • Feeing –meat, milk, bread and biscuits
    • Bathing, and vaccination for good health
    • Dog is an animal whose smelling as well as hearing power is more than the human being
    • It is like a family member
    • Security – when all the family members are on work
    • Take it for walk twice a day
    • Dog also helps for solving some criminal cases
    • Won prizes in dog shows


    • Source of physical and psychological training mental relaxation.
    • Game is a game: one must play it in the spirit of game
    • My favourite game is cricket.
    • It is a game known its wonderful glories, fluctuating fortunes and tantalizing suspense.
    • It is popular with men and women of all ages and almost all times.
    • Whenever there is a cricket match, people gather in the playing fields in thousands or sit glued to their television sets for days.
    • Cricket was invented in England.
    • The first cricket match at world level was played in 1880.
    • This game was spread into the whole world through the English people as most parts the world were ruled by England.
    • Now it is played by many big and small countries.
    • Earlier, only test crick et was played but now, one day matches are also played.
    • Test matches are played for five days.
    • Cricket causes a lot of interest.
    • Each team has a fixed number of players, over and tries to score maximum runs during the match.
    • The match moves with speed the there is action all through. Either the wickets fall or the runs keep coming in. there movement, spirit, action and fun all over the field.
    • Fours and sixes have become a common feature in cricket.
    • Nowadays, cricket is played by women and blind people also.
    • There are junior, women and blind cricket world cup tournaments.
    • There are different cricket council boards like ICC, BCCI etcetera.
    • It promotes the feeling of brotherhood.
    • Media has played an important role in making cricket a popular game.
    • Cricket also helps the sufferers of natural calamities as there are charitable matches played.
    • Cricket also promotes, tourism department. People move from one country to another country to watch the matches.
    • There is cricket world cup after every four years. Eight world cups have been played till now.
    • In some countries, domestic cricket and county cricket is played. The players of other countries to play it. Cricket dominates the standard of other games like hockey, football etcetera.
    • It gives name, fame and luxurious life to the players as they get good income and good jobs. It makes them reputed and respectable in the society.
    • Most companies hire cricket players advertise their products.
    • This entices the youth to give more towards cricket and to adopt cricket as a profession.
    • We can children, young people and adults playing cricket in every gardens and park.
    • There is also a trend of day and night matches.
    • It affects the film industries as of the film released get flopped during any cricket series world cup.
    • I like watching cricket matches television or in stadium.
    • There is a PCA stadium Mohali, international matches are played.
    • I saw a cricket match in PCA between India and Pakistan.
    • People from Pakistan and General Musharaf came to see the match.
    • Cricket has become a source of bread and butter for many people like, during cricket matches, posters, caps and logos are made by different people, it has become a source for income for rickshaw pullers, auto rickshaw drivers, shopkeepers etcetera.



    (Business suits, formals, casuals, hoods, type of shoes, glasses, colour, girls, churidars, blouses, saris something flimsy)



    1. Well, at home I love to wear casuals. I also like wearing half sarees but not sarees….. it takes much time to wear those and those can be uncomfortable too….
    2. I love to feel free and comfortable in whatever I wear and my style must suit the event I am dressed for.
    3. Whatever I buy becomes my favourite, because I buy my clothes keeping lots of things in my mind.
    4. I love sarees because it suits any figure. If worn the right way, it accentuates if one has a good hourglass figure and can hide bulges very well. I feel very good when I wear sarees.
    5. Other apparels are also worn like:

    Business suits




    1. My favourite dress is night suit as it is very comfortable. The dress may be whatever, but It should always be comfortable.
    2. My favourite dresses are Skirt and blouse, chundars etcetera.


    1. The results of a research, which examined the average percentage marks scored by boys and girls of different ages in several school subjects, are given below. Write report for a university lecturer describing the information below. You should write a minimum of 150 words.


    Subject Age Mathematics Science Geography Languages Sports


























    Subject Age Mathematics Science Geography Languages Sports

























    The tables provide information about the average percentage scores achieved in the school subjects of Mathematics, Science, Geography, Languages and Sport by children age 7, 10, 13 and 15 of the two sexes respectively.

    It can be clearly seen from the table that the strongest subject for each sex was revealed to be the weakest for the opposite sex. Sport, at 78 percent (boys), and languages at 75 percent (girls) were their strongest subject. These two subjects also comprised the lowest recorded scored for the opposite sex. The subjects for which the lowest average was scored for each groups were sport 60% (girls) and language at 70% (boys). Other than these two subjects the performance of boys and girls was somewhat alike. Boys scored higher marks in Geography, with scores ranging from 63 percent to 70 percent, while scores for girls arranged between 62 percent and 64 percent respectively.

    However, it is noteworthy that at the age of 15 both boys and girls alike averaged a score of 64 percent for this subject. The differences between the sexes for scores for mathematics and Science were negligible. It is interesting to observe the patterns which emerge when the data is examined in terms of ages groups. In general, for both boys and girls, children tended to improve as they became older. For bys, between the ages of 7 and 15, improvement can be observed in these ranges of scores. Mathematics (63 to 67 percent), science (70 to 73 percent), Geography (63 to 64 percent) and sports (71 to 78 percent) . For girls, it can be observed in these score range: mathematics (*64-68%), Science (69-72%), Geography (62-64%), and Language (62-75 percent).

    The tables illustrate that the improvement of scores of girls in this last subject, language, is the most significant one. The improvement from 62 percent at 7 years to 75 percent at 15 years also constituted the greatest margin between scores for any two particular age groups, on the contrary, boys’ scores for language steadily declined from 62 percent at 7 years to 58 percent at 15 years, and gild steadily declined in sports form 65 percent to 60 percent.

    The noteworthy exceptions that emerged were that both boys and girls recorded a slump between particular ages. For girl the happened between the ages of 10 and 13, when scores in Mathematics fell by 1 percent, Science 2 percent, and Geography, Languages and Sports by 2 percent. For boys ages at which this occurred were 13 to 15, when Mathematics and Languages both fell by 2 percent, Science 1 percent and Geography by 6 percent. Ironically during this period the score of sports for boys’ sports actually increased by 3 percent.

    To conclude, these tables show that in this study, on an average, females performed better in languages while males in this age range performed better in sports, another important pattern that emerged from the data analysis was that boys and girls both went through a slump in performance, but this slump happened for the different sexes at different ages for different subjects.


    1. Animal testing may be necessary, but we need to be merciful. Do you agree or disagree with the statement.

    Every year, millions of animals undergo painful suffering or death as a result of scientific research into the effects of drugs, food additives, cosmetics and other chemical products. While most people think animal testing is necessary, others get upset by what they see as needless suffering. In this essay, I will look at some of the positive and negative aspects of animal testing.

    Many medical treatments and procedures have been developed from experiments on animals. Since animals share many features with humans, scientists use animals to test the safety and effectiveness of newly operating techniques such as transplants on animals. Without animal testing many procedures or new drugs would be extremely unsafe.


    However, many people are concerned that animals are suffering unnecessarily and cruelly. They do not believe that every new drug needs to be tested on animals. Especially with the huge database of knowledge and modern computer models. They also get worried that many animals’ tests are ineffective, pointing out that any drugs have had to be withdrawn from the market despite extensive testing. They particularly feel that animal testing should not be used for non-essential products such as cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, and cleaning products. Furthermore, some campaigners would like to see certain tests replaced and more human methods used.


    In a nutshell, I would can that we need to make sure that the millions of animals who are used for testing new products are treated with the minimum of suffering although some animals testing may be unavoidable at present, treating our fellow creatures as mercifully as possible will demonstrate our humanity.


    Should animals be used in testing new drugs and procedures?

    Animal testing

    Advantages of Animal Testing in Medical Research

    Medical research involving animals has dramatically improved the health of the human race. Without animals testing, the cure for polio would not exist and diabetics would suffer or die from their disease. Despite these benefits, some people believe that animal should not be used for testing medical techniques and drugs. In this essay, I will outline the advantages of animals testing.


    Animal testing allows scientists to test and create new drugs. Animals such as monkeys or rabbits have similar physical processes to humans. This allows scientists to test the effects of certain drugs. If a drug produces adverse effects in animals it is probably unit for human use.


    Animal testing is cheap. There is a large supply of animals for medical research. Animals are easily bred and maintained safely in controlled laboratories. The costs of testing in humans would be extremely high.


    Many people argue that animal testing is cruel. In some cases this is true. However, it would be much cruel to test new drugs on people or children, or to let people die because there may be not enough information about a drug. Furthermore, legislation in most countries sets stands for animals treatment, and laboratories have guidelines to prevent cruelty.

    Opponents of animals’ research also say that information from animals does not apply to humans. They point to certain commercial drugs which have been withdrawn because of side-effects in humans. While it is true that animals systems differ from human systems, there are enough similarities to apply information from animals to humans.


    Animal rights campaigners claim that they do not need new tests because they already have vast amounts of information. However, many new deadly infections appear every year and new treatments and drugs are needed to combat these deadly plagues.


    In a nutshell I would say that animals testing is needed in the world we live in. our responsibility is to manage the animals in our care and balance their suffering against the good that comes from them.


    1. Should dangerous sports such as boxing or motor-racing be banned?

    Should dangerous sports be banned? Yes!

    Millions of people play a sport every day, and inevitably, some suffer from injury or pain. Most players and spectators accept this risk. However, some people would like to see dangerous sports such as boxing banned. In this essay, I will examine some of the reasons for banning certain sports.


    Some sports are nothing but an excuse for violence. Boxing is a perfect example. The last thing an increasingly violent world needs is more violence on our television. The sight of two men (or even women) bleeding, with faces ripped open, trying to obliterate each other is barbaric. Other sports, such as American football or rugby, are also barely-concealed violence.


    Some people argue that the players can choose to participate. However this is not always the case. Many boxers, for example, come from disadvantaged backgrounds. They are lured by money or by social or peer pressure and then cannot escape. Even in richer social groups, schools force unwilling students to play aggressive team sports, claiming that playing will improve the students’ character (or the school’s reputation), but in fact increases the risk of injury.


    Even where people can choose, they sometimes need to be protected against themselves. Most people approve of governments’ efforts to reduce smoking. In the same way, governments need to act if there are unacceptably high levels of injuries in sports such as football, diving mountaineering, or motor racing.


    To conclude, I accept that all sports involve challenge and risk. However violence and aggression should not be permitted in the name of sport. Governments are individuals must act to limit brutality and violence, so that children and adults can enjoy and take benefit from sport.


    1. How do you think society will be affected by the growth of telecommuting?

    Definition:       Telecommuting: workers doing all or part of their work from home and
    communication with their office by computer.

    Telecommuting: will it change the world?

    Telecommuting will have major effects on the worlds of work and family life. However, its biggest effects will be on the areas of individuals’ freedom, responsibility, and time management.


    Work and workplaces will alter dramatically. Offices may become smaller, as fewer desks may be needed.  There will be greater need of high-bandwidth connections to link the office and the home, and even homes to other homes, as other employees and supervisors will also begin working at home. Hours spent commuting, traffic jams, and fights for parking would diminish, as workers would make fewer journeys or work staggered hours.


    Family life will also change. Workers, both husbands and wives, can arrange their work around family commitments such as taking children to school, cooking leisure activities, etc. however, households will also have to set aside areas for work – particularly if both spouses are telecommuting.

    However, although the ideas of more time at home and less time travelling and attractive, there are some drawbacks to telecommuting. People may feel unable to escape their work and may even work longer or more unsocial hours. The quality of work may suffer because of the reduced face-to-face interaction with other employees. There may be delays if other workers are not immediately available. Telecommuters may feel isolated or unmotivated, or insecure about decisions. A major change will be in the way people think about work as a place or an institution. Instead, they will focus on the task or product. Workers may feel less loyal to a company and more inclined to change gobs or work part-time or on contract.


    In conclusion, the effects are difficult to predict because they depend on the extent to which telecommuting becomes popular. However, telecommuting could be the start of a major societal shift, possibly as big as the Industrial Revolution which created our present ideas of work


    1. Does foreign aid work? Or does it only help the rich country by keeping the poorer country dependent?

    Should rich countries help poorer ones?

    Today, the world is becoming more and more closely linked. Trade has increased and the movement of people between countries is greater than ever before. However, billions of people still live in poverty, and in many places, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. In this essay, I will look at the arguments for the against helping poor countries.


    There are many reasons for helping poor countries. First of all, there are humanitarian reasons. Like individuals who give to charity, many countries feel that it is their religious, social, or moral duty to help people in other countries who are suffering from famine, drought, war, or disease, however, many rich countries also donate money for political or diplomatic reasons. They want to maintain a relationship of dependency with the recipient, or simply to influence the government and direction of the country. Further reasons why many countries help countries help poorer one sis for economic reasons. The donors may want to control the supply of commodities such as oil, water, or wheat, alternatively, the richer country may want to ensure markets for its own products, which these are planes, computers or shoes.


    However, aid is not necessarily the best way to help a country. For one thing, billions of dollars of aid often goes missing. Into corrupt governments or inefficient administration. A second point is that many foreign aid projects are unsuitable for the target country. Many agencies build huge dams or industrial projects which fall after a few years or which do not involve the local people. Furthermore, much aid returns to the donor. This can be in the form of expensive specialized equipment the experts form the donor country.


    There are many other ways in which we can help poor countries. Opening up trade barriers, so that poor countries can sell their goods is one way. Another is to remove subsidies so that imported goods form poorer countries can compete fairly. A third method is to forgive debts. Many poor countries have hug interest repayments an old loans.


    To recapitulate, I would say that the needs of the poorer countries may seem obvious. However, although our humanity makes us want to help eliminate poverty and suffering, we must examine the real needs of poor countries and implement solutions which will benefit both them and us.


    1. Do children learn more quickly than adults?

    Who learns faster – children or adults?

    Small children seem to learn very quickly, while adults sometimes appears to lose the ability to pick up new subjects such as languages, music, games, or computer programs. In this essay, I will discuss whether children or adults proper to be the best learners.


    It is undoubtedly true that children seem to learn very quickly. In just a few years, they can learn how to play a musical instrument, speak one or even two new languages, and deal with many subjects at school. They even have time for sports and hobbies, and become experts in their favourite pastimes. However, how much of this is social pressure and how much is genetic? I am convinced that while children’s brains have a natural ability to absorb new information as part of their developmental growth, much of their achievement is because of social pressure. Schools force them to take up many subjects. Parents force them to practice new sports or to learn music. Even their playmates force them to become better at computer games or to read Harry Potter novels faster. In short, children may enjoy learning, but their environment also is a big motivating factor.


    Adults on the other hand are supposed to be poor learners. However, I disagree with people who say that adults cannot learn quickly. Adults have many skills which compensate for the decline in the ability of the brain to grasp and remember new material. They can organize their learning by setting times for reading or practice. They can build on skills and experiences they know already. Adults usually cannot learn to do ballet or to play the violin, but even despite these physical challenges, their motivation can often be higher than a children. Unfortunately, society does not encourage many adults to learn. People remain busy with families and work, and some adulates may feel that further learning is pointless, since they may have already achieved many goals at work or in their personal lives


    In conclusion, I feel that we cannot generalize about children or adults being better learners. It depends on the situation and the motivation of the person, and the level of enthusiasm he or she has for learning.


    1. Should smoking be banned completely?

    Should smoking be banned?

    It has become fashionable in the world today to condemn smoking. However, although I feel that smoking can be harmful, I do not think it should be banned completely.


    Let me deal first with the positive side of smoking. First, smoking undoubtedly helps many people to relax. For some, it even improves concentration. Many people like to smoke before exams or when they are relaxing with friends.


    A further point is that governments throughout the world make huge profits by levying taxes on cigarettes. This provides funds which are used for building schools, hospitals and other public amenities.


    The tobacco industry also employs tens of thousands of people throughout the world, particularly in poorer countries like Zimbabwe or India. Without Cigarettes, these people would have no jobs.


    I would also argue that people should have the right to choose whether they smoke or not. People should not smoke in a room where there are non-smokers but surely they should be free to smoke elsewhere.


    The arguments against smoking are well known. Smoking has been shown to be dangerous to health. Heart disease, bronchitis and lung cancer have all been linked.


    A further issue is that smoking costs governments millions of pounds because of the large number of people who need treatment in hospitals for smoking related problems.


    There is also concern today about passive smoking. Recent research has shown that non-smokers can suffer health problems if they spend long periods of time among people who do smoke.


    In conclusion, I think that the world would be a better place without cigarettes. However, the decision as to smoke or not should be for each individual to make.


    1. Should governments spend money on art, when they have so many other important issues and concerns?

    Spending on Art

    (Shorter version: 260 words)

    Many people’s lives are richer because of art – music, paintings, calligraphy, pictures, sculptures, poems and dance. However, some people feel that government should be spending money on housing, medical care, or defense, instead of art. In this essay, a will discuss whether governments should or should not spend money on art.


    There are several reasons why governments should not finance artists. First of all, artists should follow the same rules as the rest of the market. If there is a demand for their music or sculpture, then they will be rich. Secondly, politicians generally do not have good taste. They waste public money on popular art or as per their own preferences. But his main reason why governments should minimize spending on the world of art is that there are more important areas like housing, roads, and factories which need the money first.


    However, it would be wrong to say that governments should not spend any money on art at all. Everybody needs some beauty in his life, but not everyone can afford a Picasso or a piece of music. Governments should provide money for museums or concert halls for everyone. Another point is that art allows people to express themselves and this is good for society, culture and thought. Thirdly, artists can be good for the economy by producing music and fields: and by attracting tourists.


    All in all, I think that governments should prioritize their spending carefully, but they should also allocate some of their budget for art. It is part of their duty for society and for future generations.


    1. When should people be made to retire, 55 or 65? Should there be a compulsory retirement age?

    Retirement Age

    When should people be made to retire, 55 or 65 should there be a compulsory age limit?

    Many old people work well in their 70s and 80s, running families, countries or corporations. Other people, however, despite being fit and highly talented, are forced to retire in their age or even earlier because of company or national regulations. In this essay, I will examine whether people should be allowed to continue working for as long as they want or whether they should be encouraged to retire at a particular stage.


    There are several arguments for allowing older people to continue working as long as they are able. First of all, older employees have an immense amount of knowledge and experience which can be lost to a business or organization if they are made to retire. A second point is that older employees are often extremely loyal employees and are more willing to implement company policies than younger less committed staff. However, a more important point is regarding the attitudes in society to old people. To force someone to resign or retire at 60 or 65 indicates that the society does not value the input of these people and considers that effectively their useful life is over.


    Allowing older people to work indefinitely however is not always a good policy. Age alone is no guarantee of ability. Many younger employees have more experience or skills than older staff members, who may have been stuck in one area of unit for most of their working lives. Having compulsory retirement allows new ideas in an organization. In addition, without age limits, however arbitrary, many people would continue to work purely because they would not have any other plans or roles. A third point of view is that old people should be rewarded by society for their life’s labour by being given generous pensions and the freedom to enjoy their leisure.


    With many young people unemployed or frustrated at low-level positions, there are often calls to compulsorily retire older workers. However, this can affect the older individual’s freedom – and right to work and can deprive society of valuable experience and insights. I feel that giving workers more flexibility and choice over their retirement age will benefit society and the individual.


    1. Drug abuse is becoming a problem in our society. What are the causes of this and what are some solutions?

    Drug Abuse: Problems and Solutions

    Drug abuse is rife in many countries. Billions of dollars are spend internationally preventing drug use, treating addicts, and fighting drug-related crime. Although drugs threaten many societies, their effects can also be combated successfully. On this essay, I will look at some of the effects of drug use on society, and will suggest some solutions to the problem.


    Drug abuse causes multiple problems for countries and communities. The medical and psychological effects are very obvious. Addicts cannot function as normal members of society. They neglect or abuse their families, and eventually require expensive treatment or hospitalization. The second effect is on crime. Huge police resources are needed to fight against the smuggling and dealing. Criminal gangs and mafia underworlds develop with the money from drugs.


    However, the menace of drugs can be fought against. Education is the first battle. Children need to be told at home and in school about drugs. People need to be made aware of the effects so that they can avoid this problem. A second approach is to increase police manpower and powers to stop dealers and to enforce the law. However, the main target should be the user. Families and counselors need to talk to children and people at risk. Parents need to look at their children and help them. Jobs are needed to give people a role in society.


    In conclusion, I would say that although the problem of drugs may seem impossible to eliminate, there are concrete steps which can be taken to weaken the hold of drugs on society. The danger form drug is too great to ignore.


    1. Many students do not finish school. Why is this and how can the problem be solved?

    School   Drop-Outs: Problems and Solutions

    Today, although most students in the UAE complete school, a large number still drop out because of family, social and work pressures. This problem requires serious action from both individuals and the government.


    Most students who do not complete school do so because of family problems. Girls especially, want to get married and start a family. Some parents are not interested in education and do not support their children in studying. Social problems are also a contributing factor. Education is compulsory but, despite this some people do not take it seriously. Furthermore, jobs are available even if students do not have good qualifications. All these problems will create young people who will not have any skills and how will not be able to improve their lives. For the family and the country.


    There are several things which can be done about these problems. Parents should be encouraged to send their children to schools. Schools with baby-minding facilities should be opened specially for married students. The government needs to stress the importance of education and even offer financial support to student to continue studies. This will encourage students to stay at school rather than start working.


    In conclusion, I would say that there are several things that the government can do to allow more people to finish school. However, a number of societal attitudes also have to change if the country’s young people are to achieve their full potential.


    1. Should a city try to preserve its old, historic buildings or destroy these and replace these with modern buildings? USE specific and examples to support your opinion.

    Historic buildings present the history, culture as well as citizens’ lives of a city for generations. These are also good places attracting tourists all over the world. Furthermore, these play important roles in public spirit. Therefore, I think that a city should preserve its historic buildings.


    First historic buildings are useful for studies. For each period of time, there are its typical architectures. Historic buildings reflect those architectures and materials which our predecessors used in construction. By studying those, researchers can get an understanding about the evolution of not only construction but also society and culture. History as well as society develop continuously, the late generation get based on and inherits from the former and so on. Hence, understanding about the progress of evolution helps us to know better about humanity. This knowledge can be helpful to improve our lives now and or children’s later.


    Additionally, historic buildings bring advantages of tourism, indeed, when visiting a place, tourists are always get attracted by historic places such as museums, palaces, or buildings. They get fascinated by something different from their home country or different from daily modern life. By maintaining and preserving historic buildings, governments can attract many tourists to visit their city. Consequently, they can get much benefit from tourism. For example, in China, tourism brings in billions dollar benefit annually, and the government also invests a lot of money in developing tourism, especially in maintaining and caring for historic places. For many countries, tourism has become the sharpest profession.


    Last but not the least historic buildings are spiritual places. People often go to historic places for ceremony or celebration. They come to these places to thank for what their ancestors did for them, and wish good things for them and their children. Nevertheless, people are usually proud of their well-known historic place. For instance. French are so proud of their Eiffel tower and Egypt is famous for its pyramid.


    In conclusion, I would say that historic buildings are invaluable proofs for social and human development studies. These reflect the evolution of history and culture of an area. These are places of public sprit and bring people pride at a local level furthermore, these are good places to attract tourist and develop tourism. Hence, it is a very good idea that a city should maintain and preserve it historic buildings.


    Here are a few practice topics intended to Writing Task II (Academic) of IELTS:

    1. Some people believe that only pupils of similar interests should be given admissions in schools. Others have the opinion that schools should be for all children with varied interests. How far do you agree or disagree with the above views. Give your opinion in not less than 250 words.
    2. Some authors believe that urbanization is a ‘Modern Disease’. In not less than 250 words explain if you agree with this view and give your own opinion.
    3. Capital punishment is a brutal decision and should be abolished. Give your views in not less than 250 words and explain if you agree or disagree with it.
    4. Most criminals are set free once they finish their jail terms. Is the re introduction of criminals in societies is justified? Place your views in no less than250 words.
    5. Working and living abroad helps us to know other cultures well. How far do you think working abroad has good or bad impact on our cultural lives?
    6. If you were given to change, what all changes you would implement in this twenty first century to make our world a better living place? Discuss few changes in not less than 250 words.
    7. Computers can easily do all the basic and advanced calculations. Do you think the children should spend more time learning basic mathematics or advanced computer technology? Give your views in not less than 250 words.
    8. Should poor countries continue to receive international aids? Give your views in not less than 250 words.
    9. Some parents grow their children in strict discipline while others leave them free to learn lessons of lives on their own. Which one of these is a better approach and why? Give your own opinion in not less than 250 words.
    10. The modern technology is making all things easily available. Internet has provided us the easy downloadable versions of most books we need. Can internet world replace the world of books and words? Give your own views in not less than 250 words.
    11. As most postgraduate research is funded by industry then students’ grants should also come from the same source. How far do you agree with this? Give your views in not less than 250 words.
    12. Modern technology is transforming the way we work and is of benefit to our society. How far do you think our social lives get influenced by modern technology.
    13. In order to keep the students more focused, the sports classes should be stopped in High schools. Do you think this will be a right approach for a better generation?
    14. Children are the impressions of their parents’ behavior. If a child behaves badly his parents should be considered responsible and should be punished. How far do you agree with this?
    15. What do you think the government in your country should do to make your country more successful?
    16. Smoking is a bad habit and should be completely abandoned world wide. Give your views in not less than 250 words.
    17. Time is an important factor in every field. Do you think following strict time limits is more important than giving quality results? Give your views in not less than 250 words.
    18. Life was simpler without so much of technology. Give your views in not less than 250 words.
    19. Are famous people treated unfairly by the media? Should they be given more privacy, or is the price of their fame an invasion into their private lives?
    20. Should developing countries pay more attention towards education or improving business standards?
    21. There is an age after which one’s efficiency decreases. Should young people in the working fields replace all the old people?
    22. Animals also have emotions and feel equal pain as humans. We should stop all pharmaceutical companies from doing trials on innocent animals. Give your opinion in not less than 250 words.
    23. Sex education in schools is only introducing conflicting ideas and confusion among the immature minds and should be immediately stopped. Give your opinion in not less than 250 words.
    24. The threat of nuclear weapons maintains world peace. Nuclear power provides cheap and clean energy. The benefits of nuclear technology far overweigh the disadvantages. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer.
    25. Women are always better parents than men. How far do you agree with this? Give your opinion in not less than 250 words.
    26. Deciding the size of one’s own family is a personal preference. In your opinion. Should government intervene in the rights of the individual w9ith regard to family planning?
    27. In some countries, the average worker is obliged to retire at the age of 50, while in others people can work until they are 65 or 70. Until what age do you think people should be encouraged to remain in paid employment? Give reasons for your answer.
    28. The idea of going overseas for study at university level is an exciting prospect for many people. But while it may offer some advantages, it is probably better to stay home because of the difficulties a student inevitably encounters living and studying in a different culture. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer.
    29. Telecommuting refers to workers doing their jobs from home for part of each week and communicating with their office using computer technology. Telecommuting is growing in many countries and is expected to be common for most office workers in the coming decades. How do you think society will be affected by the growth of telecommuting?
    30. When so many people are starving to death in different parts of the world, is it justifiable for any government to spend huge amounts of money over the Space Exploration Projects?
    31. Internet has made information so handy, but at the same time, it is spoiling the children with all the adult content. Should children be kept away from internet?
    32. To what extent will migration from the developing world to the developed world become a social and political issue in the twenty first century?
    33. Technology is making communication easier in today’s world, but at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to work at home in front o f a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than face-to- face contact for its main means of communication?
    34. Zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural environment. Discuss some of the arguments for and/ or against keeping animals in zoos.
    35. The only way to prevent overcrowding in cities is to prevent migration from rural areas. Give your opinion and views.
    36. Money is the single motivational factor for getting success in any work field. How far do you agree with this?
    37. The only effective way to deal with unemployment is to introduce rapid urbanization. How far you agree?
    38. When most of the population in developing countries does not have food to eat and place to live, it is immaterial to talk about saving forests as a gesture to protect our environment. The aim should be to utilize maximum land for food production and making homes for the homeless. Gove your opinion in not less than 250 words.
    39. Reading comics only rot the children’s minds than provide any good education. How far do you agree or disagree with this?
    40. Is it wise for an industry to replace its experienced but old workers with new and young individuals having less experience? Give your views in not less than 250 words.


    1. Different Questions related to Speaking Topics
    ·        What gifts have you given to a person whose marriage you attended recently?

    ·        Marriage should be long or short?

    ·        What kind of gifts people give on marriages?

    ·        What are your job responsibilities?

    ·        Why have you chosen this field?

    ·        Which part of the day you like in your childhood?

    ·        What do you like to eat when you go outside?

    ·        Which is your favourite restaurant? And why?

    ·        What is success?

    ·        Why people want to be successful?

    ·        Do you think that being rich is only being successful?

    ·        Nowadays private life of successful persons is very less. Do you think that it should be there?

    ·        Would you like to become this kind of person?

    ·        What are the things which make a person successful?

    ·        What kinds of clothes you wear in you hometown?

    ·        What are the effects of models on youngsters and society?

    ·        Form where do you belong to?

    ·        What do you like about your hometown?

    ·        Would you like to live in your hometown for long period of time?

    1. Successful person you know?
    ·        Who is he?

    ·        Why do you like him?

    ·        How do you know him?

    ·        What types of water games are available there?

    ·        What types of jobs are related with sea?

    ·        Have you been to seaside?

    ·        How much time have you spent by the seaside?

    ·        What do you like about the seaside?

    ·        What do people like about the seaside?

    ·        Difference between the old and the latest sea travel?


    1. Any place you visited sea, lake/ rivers.
    ·        Where and when you went?

    ·        How you went there?

    ·        What have you seen there?

    ·        Government should spend money on the water resources or not?

    ·        What people do on the beaches?

    ·        Do you like to listen to the music?

    ·        How often and when you listen to the music?

    ·        What type of music do you listen


    1. Teacher you remember.
    ·        Which age group he taught?

    ·        Why you remember him or her?


    ·        Children who make imaginary stories?
    1. Birthday
    ·        How do you celebrate your birthday-with family or friends? ·        How Indian people celebrate their birthday?


    1. Vehicle you want to buy
    ·        What it looks like?

    ·        Its advantages?

    ·        What are the problems related to the vehicle?

    ·        What are the causes behind accidents?

    ·        How can we remove this problem?


    1. Shopping
    ·        Why do people do shopping?

    ·        What types of shopping do you like?

    ·        Where and when do you go for the shopping?

    ·        What do you buy?

    ·        Do you bargain?

    ·        Which mall do you like in your city?

    ·        What type of shopping people of your area do?

    ·        Women are money savers or men?


    1. Favourite Personality
    ·        How his personality looks like?

    ·        Have you met him recently?

    ·        When meet him and how often?

    ·        Why intelligent people are not choosing teaching as a profession?

    ·        If we increase the salary of the teachers will the people join this profession?

    ·        Nowadays the students respect the teachers or not?

    ·        Teachers should have much knowledge which can fulfill the students; requirements?

    ·        Do you think it is necessary?

    ·        Do you use e-mails?

    ·        In future will e-mail decrease the writing skill or not?

    ·        Role of happiness?

    ·        Is unhappiness always bad?

    ·        Entertainment source for the children in your culture?

    ·        Future prospects of these entertainment sources?



    1. Childhood story
    ·        Where did you read it?

    ·        Theme of the story?

    ·        Benefits of the imaginary stories?

    ·        What are the effects of telling stores versus reading stories?

    ·        Do you often read this story?

    ·        Why people celebrate birthdays?

    ·        What is the importance of birthdays?

    ·        Which birthday is important in person’s life-first birthday or later ones?

    ·        Do you like meeting people?

    ·        Where people meet nowadays and where people met in the past time?

    ·        If two married persons meet together, what do they talk about themselves?


    1. An old person in your family
    ·        Who is he?

    ·        What is he doing?

    ·        How has he influenced you?

    ·        Tell me about the friends of your grandparents?

    ·        Where they meet each other?

    ·        Describe your house?

    ·        Who kept your name?

    ·        Significance of your name?

    ·        From where it is taken?

    ·        Importance of the photographs?

    ·        Do you like to click the photographs? And why?

    ·        Are you student or employee? Where are you working?


    1. Marriage
    ·        What type of marriage people do nowadays?

    ·        People are spending money on marriages. What is its effect on the society?

    ·        Any project report which you made?

    ·        When did you make it?

    ·        Why did you make it?

    ·        Who asked you to make it?

    ·        Wealthy nations should support the poor nations and why?

    ·         What are the benefits of the individual and the team work?


    1. Your travelling for 3 days trip.
    ·        Why and when you go there?

    ·        What kinds of holidays are in India?

    ·        For which holiday people like to go-on weekends or on other holidays?

    ·        Do you like tourists? What do you learn from them

    ·        Do you like to meet with the local or the general public?

    ·        What types of friends do you have and where do you meet each other?

    ·        What types of friends your parents have and where do they meet each others?

    ·        Which city shows the history of your country?

    ·        How the teacher can educate the students about the history?

    ·        Role of the museums?

    ·        How to encourage the youth towards the museums?

    ·        Which is the busiest part of a day?

    ·        What do you like or dislike in your city?

    ·        Anything people can do to improve their city?


    1. Positive change in your teenage that changed your life
    ·        What or who introduced that positive change?

    ·        How did it change your life?

    ·        Do you often speak about this change to your friends?

    ·        Do you thank god that this incident happened with you?

    ·        What did you learn from it?


    1. Generation Gap
    ·        What is the definition of the generation gap?

    ·        Should young and old people learn from each other?

    ·        Has teenage life some problems?

    ·        Is teenage life the best part of life?

    ·        What would you like to give to your invited friends?

    ·        What do your friends like to eat?

    ·        How much stress do you take to select a meal?

    ·        Photographs you have?

    ·        When were these clicked?

    ·        Why do you like these?

    ·        Do your friends appreciate these photographs?

    ·        When people go for travelling should they click photos or not?

    ·        Should people take their own photographs?

    ·        Some people do not like to come in front of the camera. What do you think?

    ·        What is the importance of historical photographs?

    ·        Pictures like bomb blasts and other pictures’ like showing the dead bodies should be shown to the children or not?

    ·        Do you invite your friends to your house for the party? What do you like, going to others’ home for party or inventing them at your own home?


    1. Which program you find
    ·        Interesting on radio?

    ·        What is the name of the programme?

    ·        What do you like about this programme?

    ·        What is the programme about?

    ·        Do you think the radio is once again catching up with the youngsters?

    ·        Whether performing on radio is easy or on television?

    ·        What advantages you find on radio over television?

    ·        Do you think advertisements on radio have more impact as compared to television?


    1. Any Festival celebrated in your Hometown
    ·        Who organized it? Any extra activities in it?

    ·        Describe it?

    ·        Independence or Republic day should be celebrated or not?

    ·        Who are making any programme favourite sponsor, organizers or participants?

    ·        How do people celebrate the festival in your locality?


    1. Your Neighbours
    ·        Who is he or she?

    ·        How often do you meet him?

    ·        Are neighbours necessary or not?

    ·        Difference between the present or the past time neighbours?


    1. Stress on workplace
    ·        How it affects the person’s life?

    ·        What are the remedies to reduce this stress?

    ·        What are the activities you do for removing stress?

    ·        How can we reduce stress in the office?

    ·        If stress is less, how our behavior can be changed?

    ·        How do you spend your weekends?

    ·        Do you plan your weekends?

    ·        What are the common ambitions of the youngsters?

    ·        What do they do to fulfill their ambitions?

    ·        Relaxation Technique

    ·        What relaxation technology do you adopt?

    ·        When and how often you relax?

    ·        What will be the results if there will not be any relaxation?

    ·        What bad in the mobile that you do not like?

    ·        A school or college building you visited?

    ·        How it was constructed?

    ·        What all facilities it provided?

    ·        What things you like in that school or college?

    ·        Do you think children should be sent to hostel? Why?

    ·        Have you ever stayed in hostel?

    ·        What is the difference between village and city schools?

    ·        Should youngsters be ambitious?

    ·        Any difficult challenge you accepted and succeeded in that?

    ·        When you did and how people reacted upon it?

    ·        What was the challenge?

    ·        What changes you brought in yourself?

    ·        Did you succeed on not?

    ·        One should accept the challenge or not?

    ·        Who is the person at your home who uses mobile phone more than other family members?

    ·        How do you like the communicate-by telephone or writing?

    ·        How many times in a day you make calls to your friends?

    ·        How many calls you receive from your friends daily?

    ·        Which is the best according to your opinion?

    ·        A health club which is made only for students, should other people from outside be allowed to enter it?

    ·        In future, would you like to travel to the same place?


    1. Travelling
    ·        The best place you have visited?

    ·        Do you like travelling?

    ·        Compare between private and public transport?

    ·        Have your travelled out of the city?

    ·        Significance of travelling.

    ·        You want to travel alone or with family?

    ·        When do you travel? Do you enjoy travelling?

    ·        What are the benefits of travelling?

    ·        How many places have you visited?


    1. Adventurous Sport
    ·        Why people participate in dangerous sport?

    ·        What are the different kinds of adventures?

    ·        Tell about any person who participated in such sports. How do you know him?

    ·        Which is your lucky, number

    ·        Which is easier to remember-a number or a name?

    ·        How did you help him when the participated in such sport?

    ·        How does the society help these sportsmen?

    ·        Which types of brands are famous in your city?


    1. Eating
    ·        What is the specialty in Indian food?

    ·        What types of eating do you like the most?

    ·        What type of improvement do you want in Indian Food

    ·        That thing of healthy diet, were not available 15 years ago but are available now?

    ·        What is a balanced diet

    ·        What are the eating habits in your area?

    ·        Which room of your house do you like the most and why?

    ·        What types of apartments are there in your neighbourhood?

    ·        What do you do in your favourite room?

    ·        What is the difference between a flat and a house?

    ·        How is marriage celebrated in your tradition?

    ·        Tell me about your school education?

    ·        Difference between modern and your education system?

    ·        How do you organize your photographs?

    ·        What role does photography play in our life?

    ·        On which occasions do you use camera?

    ·        What is the ideal age of marriage for boys and girls?

    ·        How are marriages celebrated as per your tradition?

    ·        Why people spend money on marriages?

    ·        Have you attended a marriage recently? Describe it?

    ·        Describe a garden?

    ·        Where is it situated?

    ·        How it looks like?

    ·        What is the special thing in it?

    ·        How often do you visit this park?

    ·        What kinds of plants are there?

    ·        People are having parks in their homes, what do you think about it?

    ·        Also, people prefer plant vegetables in their homes? What are the used of it?

    ·        As gardens and parks are decreasing, who is responsible for it?

    ·        Should people pay to visit parks?

    ·        How flowers are related to our festivals and ceremonies?

    ·        Government is demolishing the parks for doing more construction for people. Is it good or not?

    ·        Importance of museums?

    ·        How museum can be made to interest young people?

    ·        What are the benefits of money which is given by the public?

    ·        Eating habits of Indian people?

    ·        Traditional meals of India?

    ·        What would you like to give in meal to your friends when you invite them?

    ·        Which subjects do you like the most?

    ·        What are the characteristics of Indian food?

    ·        What do your friends like to eat?

    ·        How much stress do you take to select the meals?

    ·        When, why and where do you like to travel. Different ways of travelling?

    ·        Advantages and disadvantages of the newspapers

    ·        Advantages and disadvantages of an aeroplane and a train?

    ·        Modes of present and past travelling.

    ·        Who is he or she?

    ·        How often do you meet him or her?

    ·        Is neighbor necessary or not?

    ·        Difference between present him neighbours and past time neighbours?

    ·        What changes have come up in eating habits 20 years ago and now?

    ·        Indian people like what type of food?

    ·        What changes you want in your food?

    ·        Difference between eating habits of cities and countryside?

    ·        Do you want to bring any change in your home?

    ·        Difference between houses or countryside and city?

    ·        Difference between the past houses and present houses?

    ·        Which picture is hung on the wall of your house?

    ·        Which type of photography do you like?

    ·        What is the role of photography in media?

    ·        Difference between past and present photography?

    ·        Would you prefer to do marriage at marriage palace or at home?

    ·        What kinds of sweets do you like in marriages or parties?

    ·        What are the differences between today’s marriages and past time marriages?

    ·        How can you improve your writing skills?

    ·        Have you seen any work of sculpture recently?

    ·        What was it?

    ·        Why did you like it?

    ·        Have you ever seen it before?

    ·        Did you ever see it before?

    ·        Do you see these things often?

    ·        Do you think all these things related to art and painting will be the subject in the future?

    ·        How these painting or things of sculpture affect the children?

    ·        Are you satisfied with your current job?

    ·        The happiest person you know?

    ·        Who is he?

    ·        What do you think why he is the happiest person?

    ·        What are his or her negative and positive qualities?

    ·        Importance of internet?

    ·        Importance of e-mail and traditional letter writing?

    ·        Major problem in the city where you live?

    ·        Which vehicle do you want to buy in the future?

    ·        How it looks like?

    ·        Ho it looks different from other vehicles?

    ·        Tell me about any travelling experience?

    ·        Different seasons in your country?

    ·        Importance of parks in your city?

    ·        Any change in the city you want to bring in?

    ·        How can culture improve the personality of the people?

    ·        What are the roles that teachers play for teaching manners to the children?

    ·        Any project you made?

    ·        When did you make it?

    ·        What is the project?

    ·        What is the importance of team work?

    ·        Your neighbor.

    ·        How do people in your community use water?

    ·        After 15 years, tell me the future of fresh water?

    ·        What is the relationship between the fresh water and technologies (aqua guard)?



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