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    Law Giri

    Parts of speech

    There are 8 parts of speech:

    1. Noun                a word used to name something.
    2. Pronoun               a word used to replace a noun.
    3. Adjective                a word that qualifies (describes) a noun.
    4. Verb                a word (of group) of words used to denote actions, states or happenings.
    5. Adverb                a word used to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
    6. Conjunction               a word used to connect one part of a sentence to another.
    7. Interjection                a word used to express mood of reaction.
    8. Preposition      a word placed before another word to locate the latter in time and space.

    Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but now the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. The next few examples show how a word’s part of speech can change from one sentence to the next:

            Books  are made of ink, paper, and glue.

    In this sentence, “books” is a noun, the subject of the sentence.

    Sneha waits patiently while seema books the tickets.

    Here “books” is a verb, and its subject is “seema.”

    We walk down the street.

    In this sentence, “walk” is a verb, and its subject is the pronoun “we.”

    The mail carrier stood on the walk.

    In this example, “walk” is a noun, which is part of a prepositional phrase describing where the mail carrier stood.

    The town decided to build a new jail.

    Here “jail” is a noun, which is the object of the infinitive phrase “to build.”

    The cop told us that if we did not leave town immediately he would jail us.

    Here “jail” is part of the compound verb “would jail.”

    They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night.

    In this sentence, “cries” is a noun acting as the direct object of the verb “heard”.

    The baby cries all night long and all day long.

    But here “cries” is a verb that describes the actions of the subject of the sentence, the baby.

    1. Noun :

    A noun is the name of a person, place, animal, thing, or idea. Anything that exists, we assume, can be named, and that name is a noun.

    A proper noun, which names a specific person, place, or thing (Rahul, Queen Elizabeth, Middle East, Delhi, Malaysia, Sanskrit, God Hinduism, Buddhism, the Congress Party), is almost always capitalized.

    Common nouns are the general terms/names we use to refer to one of a class of a person, place or thing (boy, tiger, flower); things that usually are not capitalized.

    A Noun Clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb and acts as a noun. Thus it can do anything that a noun can do:

    That he freed humans from slavery is one of his greatest achievements.

    A Noun Phrase can be a noun or pronoun alone, but is frequently a noun or pronoun with pre-and/or post- modification:

    the name                                       an odd name

    the name of the game                   the name he gave

    Categories of Nouns

    Nouns can be classified further as:

    Countable nouns, which name anything that can be counted (six boys, seven continents, a few oranges, a dozen buildings);

    Uncountable nouns, which name something that can’t be counted (water, air, information, furniture);

    We use uncountable nouns to talk about things we think of as mass, rather than countable individual things. We use them with singular verbs.

    It may not be immediately obvious whether nouns are countable or uncountable, and some uncountable nouns in English are countable in other languages.

    Collective nouns, nouns that refer to a group of individual people or animals, and which in the singular can take either a singular or plural verb:

    army, audience, committee, family, herd, majority, parliament, team, etc.

    The choice of singular or plural verb- and corresponding pronouns and determiners-depends on whether the group is considered as a single unit or a collection of individuals, e.g.:

    the audience, which was a large one, was in its  place by 7 pm

    The audience, who were all waving their arms above their heads were clearly enjoying        themselves

    The use of a plural verb with a grammatically singular noun of this type is common British English than in American. But even when followed by a plural verb, such a noun still takes a singular determiner (e.g. This family are all accomplished musician).

    Then there are abstract nouns, used mainly of nouns that denote an action idea, quality or state: love, warmth, fun, luck. Your five senses cannot detect this group of nouns: you cannot see them, cannot hear them, cannot smell them, cannot taste them, and cannot feel them.

    A little into the details:

    Countable Nouns

    Countable nouns refer to things that we can count. Such nouns can take either singular or plural form. Concrete nouns may be countable.

    There are a dozen mangoes in the basket.                                                                                                 He ate an apple for a snack.

    Collective nouns are countable.

    She attended three classes today.                                                                                                                                      London is home to several orchestras.

    Some proper nouns are countable.

    There are many Iraqis living in Pune.                                                                                                                                                     The Ambanis would throw lavish parties at their Manali summer mansion.

    Uncountable Nouns

    Uncountable nouns refer to things that we cannot count. Such nouns take only singular form.                     Abstract nouns are, usually, uncountable.

    His love for books is admirable.                                                                                                                                          Her intelligence is boundless.

    Some concrete nouns, when understood as a unit, are uncountable.

    Oil is the reason of most wars today.                                                                                                                                                                                           Rice is the staple diet of Asians.

    Sometimes uncountable nouns take plural form – this is when they are used in a countable sense. The differences between the uncountable and countable meanings of nouns that are used in either sense can be seen in the following chart:

    Uncountable Sense Countable Sense
    Art is sometimes very shallow.

    Life is amazing.

    Pizza is bad for health

    Religion has been the cause of many a war.

    She has beautiful skin.

    Coffee causes insomnia.

    Paper should not be wasted.

    The folk arts of Indian states.

    I wish I had many lives.

    How many pizzas should we eat?

    India is home to many religions.

    Trading in animal skins is illegal.

    Get us two coffees.

    Where are my papers?


    Forms of Nouns

    Nouns can be in the subjective, possessive and objective case. The word case defines the role of the noun in the sentence. Is it a subject, an object, or show possession?

    The Math teacher [subject] is good.                                                                                                                                                                                         He went to the Maths teacher [object].                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Maths teacher’s [possessive] cell- phone is nice.

    Nouns in the subject and object role are identical in form; nouns that show the possessive, however, take a different form.

    Possessive Nouns

    In grammar, possession shows ownership. These are rules to create possessive nouns:

    1. With singular nouns, add an apostrophe and an

    Cat à cat’s tail                                                    witch à witch’s magic

    1. With plural nouns ending in s, add an apostrophe after the

    Cat’s à cats’ tails                                                  witches à witches’s voices

    1. With plural nouns not ending in s, add an apostrophe and an

    Men à men’s cell phones                                     mice à mice’s tails

    Plural Nouns

    Almost all nouns change form when they become plural, usually with the simple addition of an-s or-es . Unfortunately this is not always the case.

    Here are the guidelines for creating plural nouns.

    1. Add s to form the plural of most nouns.

    cat àcats                                                                    table à tables

    1. Add es if the noun ends n s, sh,ch,or x.

    wish à wishes                 witch à witches                fox à foxes

    1. If a noun ends in consonant plus –y, change the y to i and add

    city à cities                                                                 lady à ladies

    1. If a noun ends in vowel plus –y, add Words ending in –quy don’t follolw this rule (as in soliloquies).

    essay à essays                                                             monkey à monkeys

      Subjective Possessive Objective















    Personal Pronouns                           


    1st person

    2nd person

    3rd person



    he, she, it

    my, mine

    your, yours

    his, her, hers, its



    him, her, it

    1st person

    2nd person

    3rd person





    your, yours

    their, theirs




    Relative and interrogative pronouns


    which/ that/ what

    whose whom


    which/ that/ what

    Indefinite pronouns                             
      everybody everybody’s everybody


    1. Pronoun:

    A pronoun replaces a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like “he, ” “which,” “none,” and “you” to avoid repetition. A pronoun gets its meaning from the noun it stands for the noun is called the antecedent.

    Although Mumbai is humid, it is my favorite city.

    antecedent         pronoun

    There are different kinds of pronouns. Most of them have antecedents, but a few do not.

    Pronouns can be classified into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.

    Personal Pronouns

    A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and caste.

      Singular Plural
    First person

    Second person

    Third person

    i, me, mine, my

    you, your, yours

    he, him, his, she, her, hers, it

    we, us, our, ours

    you, your, yours

    they, them, their, theirs, its

    Possessive Pronouns

    Possessive pronouns indicate that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. It shows a sense of belonging. The possessive personal pronouns are “mine,” “yours,” “hers,” “his,” “its,” “ours,” and “theirs.” Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like “my,” “her,” and “their.”

    In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a possessive personal pronoun:

    The x box is mine.

    Here the possessive pronoun “mine” functions as a subject complement.

    This is yours.

    Here too the possessive pronoun “yours” functions as a subject complement.

    He is on the kitchen counter.

    In this example, the possessive pronoun “his” acts as the subject of the sentence.

    Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.

    In this sentence, the possessive pronoun “theirs” is the subject of the sentence.

    Ours is the green one on the corner.

    Here too he possessive pronoun “ours” function as the subject of the sentence.

    Demonstrative Pronouns

    A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. “This” and “these” refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while “that” and “those” refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

    The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “That” refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” refer to plural nouns and noun phrases.  Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjective,  though, obviously, you use them differently. Also that “that” can also be used as a relative pronoun.

    In the following sentences, each of the highlighted words is a demonstrative pronoun:

         This must not happen.

    Here “this” is used as the subject of the compound verb “must not happen.”

    This is bunny;                                      that is the dog that bit me.

    In this example “this” is used as subject and refers to something close to the speaker. The demonstrative pronoun “that” is also a subject but refers to something farther away from the speaker.

    Interrogative pronouns

    Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are “who,” “whom,” “which,” “what” and the compounds formed with the suffix “ever” (“whoever,” “whomever,” and “whatever”).

    The highlighted word in each of the following sentences is an interrogative pronoun:

    Who got the highest in the test?

    Whois the subject of the sentence.

    Whom do you think he has rewarded?

    In this sentence, “whom” is the object of the verb “rewarded.”

    To whom it may concern?

    Here the interrogative pronoun “whom” is the object of the proposition “to.”

    Who will do this for me?

    In this sentence, the interrogative pronoun “who” is the subject of the compound verb “do this”.

             What did she say?

    Here the interrogative pronoun “what” is the direct object of the verb “say.”

    Relative pronouns

    Relative pronouns begin a subordinate clause. There are five relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom, those.

         Piyush claimed that he could run the entire marathon.

    Ram was the person who helped piyush after piyush had collapsed.

    Indefinite pronouns

    An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

    The most common indefinite pronouns are “all,” “another,” “any,” “anybody,” “anyone,” “anything,” “each,” “everybody,” “everyone,” “everything,” “few,” “many,” “nobody,” “none,” “one,” “several,” “some,” “somebody,” and “someone.”

    Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.

    The highlighted words in the following sentences are indefinite adjectives:

               Many were invited to the party but only six showed up.

    Here “many” acts as the subject of the compound verb “were invited”.

    The cops searched the house and everything was thrown onto the floor.

    In this example, “everything” acts as a subject of the verb “was thrown.”

    Reflexive Pronouns

    You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. In other words when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same, the object takes the reflexive case.

    Reflexive pronouns end in self  and selves: “myself,” “yourself,” “herself,” “himself,” “itself,” “ourselves,” “yourselves,”  and “themselves.”

    People fool themselves all the time.

    Rita hurt herself while cutting vegetables.

    Sometimes I ask myself the reasons behind my choices.

    Varun needs to force himself to do his homework.

    We need to find ourselves.

    Intensive/Emphatic Pronouns

    An intensive or emphatic pronoun is a pronoun that just emphasizes its antecedent. In other words it is not necessary for the meaning of the sentence. We can do without it. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.

    I myself cooked the food today.

    Siddhartha himself said that he would pick up the kids.

    They themselves are responsible for the mess.

    In each of the above sentences, eliminating the intensive pronouns does not change or affect the meaning of the sentences. For e.g.:

    I cooked the food today

    It does not alter the meaning of the first sentence above.


    1. Adjective:

    Adjectives are words that describe nouns and pronouns. Adjectives answer the questions:                             what kind? How much? Which one? How many?

    For example:

    What kind?                                                   Lovely girl                             diamond pearl

    How much?                                                  more freedom                           little effort

    Which one?                                                  third time                                  those people

    How many?                                                  several chances                         five oranges

    There are five kinds of adjectives: common adjectives, proper adjectives, compound adjectives, articles, and indefinite adjectives.

    1. Common adjectives describe nouns or pronouns.

    frail man                                                   yellow flower                              beaudtiful scene

    1. Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns.

    Italian fruits (from the noun “Italy”)

    Punjabi food (from the noun “Punjab”

    1. Compound adjectives are made up of more than one word.

    far-of island

    teenage boy

    1. Articles are a special type of adjective. Here are three articles: a, an, the.

    The is called a “definite article” because it refers to a specific thing.

    A and an are called “indefinite articles” because they refer to general things. Use a with consonant sounds: use an before vowel sounds.

    1. Indefinite adjectives don’t specify the specific amount of something.

    all               another                  any                   both

    each            either                    few                   many

    more           most                      neither             other

    several        some

    Important things to remember when you use adjectives:

    1. Use an adjective to describe a noun or a pronoun.

    Shreya was reluctant to leave the job.

    noun             adj.                      adj.noun

    1. Use vivid adjectives to make your writing more specific and descriptive.

    Take a larger slice of the luscious cake.

    adj.   noun              adj.    noun

    1. Use an adjectives after a linking verb. A linking verb connects a subject with a descriptive word. The most common linking verbs are be (is, am, are, was, were, and so on), seem, appear, look, feel, smell, sound, taste, become, grow, remain, stay, and turn.

          Chicken made this way tastes more delicious (not deliciously).

    The adjective that follows a linking verb is known as a predicative adjective.

    1. Adverb:

    Adverbs  are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs answer the questions: when? Where? How? Or to what extent?

    When?                          Fell yesterday                    start now

    Where?                        Went below                        move up

    How?                           Sadly thought                     danced badly

    To what extent?           Partly finished                     eat completely

    Most adverbs are formed by adding-ly to an adjective. For example:

    Adjective                     Adverb 

         quick                             quickly

    careful                           carefully

    accurate                         accurately

    Here are some of the most common non-ly  adverbs:

    afterward                 almost                 already                  also back            even               far

    fast                           hard                    here                       how                    late                 long

    low                           more                   near                       never                  next                now

    often                        quick                   rather                     slow                   soon               still

    then                          today                  tomorrow               too                     when              where



    1. Verbs:

    Verbs are words used to denote an action or describe a state of being in a sentence. Every sentence must a verb. There are three basic types of verbs: action verbs, and helping verbs.

    Action Verbs

     Action verbs tell what the subject does. The action can be visible (jump, kiss,laugh) or mental (think, learn, study).

            The baby broke the glass.

    Priya considered going for shopping.

    An action verb can be transitive or intransitive.

    Transitive verbs need  a direct object.

        Mehul  likes ice crème.

    Somya gave  her dog food.

    Intransitive verbs do not need a direct object.

    Who called?

          Rahul fell down.

    Linking Verbs

    Linking verbs join the subject and the predicate. They do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of the verb to additional information about the subject. The most common linking verbs include be, feel, grow, seem, smell, remain, appear, sound, stay, look, taste, turn, become. Look for forms of to be, such as am, are, is, was, were, am, being, can be, have been and so on.

    Sheela was not satisfied with her result.

    He is going for a walk.

    Many linking verbs can also be used as action verbs.

    Linking: The kids looked excited.

    Action: I looked for Reema in the fair.

    Quick tip- To determine whether a verb is being used as a linking verb or an action verb, substitute am, are, or is for the verb. If it makes sense, the original verb is a linking verb.

    Helping Verb

    Helping verbs also known as “auxiliary verbs” are added to another verb to make the meaning clearer. Helping verbs include any form of to, be, do, does, did, have, has, had, shall, should, will. Would, can, could, may, might, must. Verb phrases are made up of one main verb and one or more helping verbs.

    She has finished her work

    They still have not yet found what they are looking for.

    1. Conjunctions

    Conjunctions connect words or group of words and show how the words are related. There are three kinds of conjunctions: coordinating, conjunctions, correlative, conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.

    1. Coordinating Conjunctions link similar words or word groups. There are seven coordinating conjunctions.

    for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

    Quick tip- Use the mnemonic to help you remember the seven coordinating conjuctions:

    FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).

    1. Correlative conjunctions also link similar words or word groups, but they are always used in pairs. The correlative conjunctions are

    Both… and




    Not only…but also

    1. Subordinating conjunctions link an independent clause (complete sentence) to a dependent clause (fragment). The most often used subordinating conjunctions are

    After, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, even though, if, in order that, since, so that, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever.


    1. Interjections

    An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. Since interjections are not linked grammatically to other words in the sentence, they are set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or an exclamation mark. For Example:

    Hey! Don’t do that.

    Wow! What a fabulous apartment.

    1. Prepositions:

    First of all a preposition is a “pre- position”. So it is usually (not always) placed before a noun or a pronoun. And it links this noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence.

    Some of the most common prepositions are:

    About, above, across, after, against, along, amid, around, As, at, before, behind, below,  beneath, Beyond, but, From, Of, Through, off, too, by, inside, opposite, toward, despite, into, out, under, down, like, outside, underneath, during, near, over, until, except, on, past, upon, onto since, with.






    A noun or a pronoun always follows a preposition – almost. This noun or pronoun is called the object of the preposition. A prepositional phrase is a preposition and its object. A prepositional phrase can be two or three words long.

    Under the wall

    At home

    However, prepositional phrases also can be much longer, depending on the length of the preposition and the number of words that describe the object of the preposition.

    near the beautifully crafted furniture

    on account of his nearly devilish attitude.


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