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    Law Giri

    Science Part I (BIOLOGY)


    Infectious diseases : These are conveyed from one person to another by.

    • Air, e.g. Tuberculosis, Influenza, Small-pox.
    • Inanimate objects (such as clothes, books, furniture), e.g. scarlet fever and small-pox.
    • Water and food, e.g., enteric fever, cholera and dysentery.
    • Through some wound in the skin, e.g., anthrax tetanus.
    • Living creatures, especially insects, e.g., cholera (through files), malaria (through mosquitoes), typhus (by lice).
    • Direct contact, e.g., small-pox and venereal diseases.

    Tuberculosis : Tuberculosis of lungs is called pthisis or Consumption. It is caused by Mycobacterium tubucule weak chest.

    Cure : B.C.G. vaccine; use of streptomycin; open air and good diet.

    Preventive Measures:

    1. Segregation of the patient, who should be better treated in a sanatorium.
    2. Sputum should be voided into a disinfectant.
    3. The patient should hold a hankerchief in front of the mouth, while coughing.
    4. The patient should sleep in a sepatate bed.
    5. The patient should not kiss children.

    Smallpox : It is caused by virus. The onset is sudden, with headache and backache followed by vomiting, fever and running of the nose. Eruption on the skin, small red pimples become pocks on the third day. Scabs fall on the 14th day leaving behind pits or scars on the skin.

    Preventive Measures :

    1. Vaccination in infancy and every seven years.
    2. Isolation of the sick.
    3. Thorough disinfection of rooms.

    Cholera : It is caused by cholera vibrio. Characterised by passing copious colourless stools and also vomiting, pain in legs and back, cramps, suppression of urine and collapse.

    Essential Measures for protection :

    1. Cholera vaccination.
    2. Pure water supply and clean food.
    3. Careful disinfection of all ripe fruits should be forbidden.

    The infection is carried through :

    1. Water used for drinking.
    2. Adulteration of milk with infected water, and also through the disease.

    Tetanus : Cause : Toxin secreted by bacillus tetanus which lives on soil and dust.

    Prevention : Injection of anti-toxic serum soon after one is injured.

    Cure : Anti-tetanus injections.

    Malaria : Causes : Bite of female anopheles mosquito. Malaria parasite (protozoa) enter red blood corpuscles where they multiply till the red blood corpuscles burst. The process is repeated.

    Symptoms : The important symptoms are : repeated attacks of fever with shivering and a feeling of cold, and its going away with sweating. If entreated, repeated attacks lead to enlargement of spleen, anemia or bloodlessness, pigmentation of the face and general weakness. As the disease is spread through the agency of the mosquito, pigmentation of the face and general weakness. As the disease is spread through the agency of the mosquito, we have only to take preventive and defensive measures against this insect. Filling the pits with earth or drainage of ponds and pools, or sprinkling kerosene oil or spraying DDT into stagnant pools of water, certain kinds offish are the best preventive measures. Full grown mosquitoes can be killed by cresol vapours or DDT spray. Use of mosquito-nets or mosquito cream are defensive measures. Use of paludrine, atebrine or quinine are preventive medicines.


    Arthritis           Joints               Asthma            Bronchial Muscles

    Cataract            Eyes                Diabetes           Pancreas

    Diptheria          Throat              Eczema            Skin

    Goitre               Thyroid gland   Jaundice           Liver

    Malaria             Spleen              Ottis                 Ears

    Paralysis           Nerves              Polio                Legs

    Pyorrhoea         Teeth               Plurisy              Lungs

    Rheumatism     Joints               Pneumonia       Lungs

    Sinusitis           Bones               Typhoid            Intestines

    Trachoma         Eyes                 Tuberculosis     Lungs

    Tonsilitis          Glands              Meningitis        Legs




    Diseases                       Germs              Anaemia                      Tinia solium

    Pneumonia                   Bacteria            Malaria                         Aniphilis

    Dysentry                      Ant Amoebia    Tuberculosis                 Bacillis Tubercilia

    Diseases connected with the organs of the body-

    • Colome (2) Thyroid       (3) Lungs.

    Rickets is caused by the shortage of Vitamin-B.

    Malaria is caused by Aniphilis.

    Insulin is used in diabetes.

    General Epidemics –

    • Plague (2) Smallpox                 (3) Cholera.

    Main three components of blood :-

    • Red Blood corpuscles.
    • White Blood coupuscles.
    • Blood Platelets.


    Alpaca. An animal found in South America, from whose skin alpaca cloth is made.

    Antelope. A group of hollow-horned ruminants related to sheep and goats.

    Ape. Often applied to common monkeys.

    Bever. Rodent found in Asia, Europe and America, famous for its skill in handling nests.

    Chameleon. A lizard which changes colour of its head and horns are of a buffalo, a long tail of an ass.

    Goraffe. Found in Africa, the tallest animal in the world.

    Gnu. An ox-like antelope inhabiting South Africa. Its head and horns are of a buffalo, a long tail of an ass.

    Gorilla. Largest of the man-like or anthropoid apes, native of Africa.

    Hyena. A carnivorous animal found in Asia and Africa.

    Ibex. A wild goat having long curved horns found in the mountain regions of Europe, Africa.

    Kiwi. Flightless, bird found in New Zealand.

    Koala. A pouched mammal related to the monkey found in Australia.

    Lynz. A spoiled cat\like mammal with a proverbially keen vision.

    Mangoose. A small carnivorous mammal seen in Africa and India, ii gives a tought fight to a serpent.

    Musk deer. Small ruminant inhabiting the mountains of Central Asia having an abdominal gland containing the strong smelling substance known as musk. It has become practically extinct.

    Mustang. A small wide horse of western United States of America.

    NIlgai. The largest of the Indian antelopes, somewhat intermediate between a deer and an ox.

    Octopus. It is sea animal with eight sucker arms.

    Ostrich. Flightless largest living bird prized for its rich feathers, found in Africa and Australia, It can run at a great speed.

    Pelican. Water fowl, found in North America and Europe.

    Platypus. Most amazing furred animal found in Australia, part fish and part mammal.

    Penguin. Flightless sea bird inhabiting south temperate and Antarctic regions.

    Porcupine. A rodent covered with defensive quills.

    Reindeer. A kind of deer found in north Europe, Siberia, New foundland and Canada.

    Rhinoceros. A huge thick-skinned ugly looking animal of Asia and Africa and having one or two horns jutting of its snout. It resembles a buffalo.

    Sponge. A group of low water animals. The body is penetrated by numerous channels of pores.


    Beautiful Bird. Peacock, parrot, pigeon, pheasant.

    Pouched mammals. Kangaroo, Koalas, wallabies, bandicoots of Australia and oppossums of America. These are young animals which are often less than an inch long, and live for a short period in mother’s pouch, where they such milk.

    Scavenging birds. Cock, Crow, vulture.

    Carnivora : Eaters of fresh animal flesh, such as lions, tigers, leopards, cards, wolves, dogs, etc.

    Anthropoid. A member of the ape family closely resembling man such as gorilla, chimpanzee and glboon.

    Mammal : When the young ones are born, all mammal mothers feed them with their own milk, such as women, monkeys, whales, rodents.

    Hoofed animals. Camel, rhinoceros, cow, sheep, goat, antelope, ox, yak, deer, horse, etc.

    Vertebrate animals are those which have a backbone. The main kind of vertebrates are : (1) mammals (2) fish (3) reptiles, (4) amphibians (5) birds.

    Birds of prey. ojdoafafdakfHawk, eagle, vulture, condor.

    Rodent. An order of mammals including those whose incisor teeth continue growing throughout life, since they were down with gnawing. They are capable of making holes in the ground or trees, such as squirrel, rat, guinea, pig, beaver, hare, porcupine, etc.

    Quadrupeds. Four-footed animals such as horse, cow, monkey, dog, goat, etc.

    Bovine. The family of cud chewing animals; the cow belongs to this family.

    Feline. Pertaining to cat family, such as cat.

    Sea birds. Pelican, penguin, duck, albatross.

    Beasts of burden. Draught animals and beasts of burden mean the same; those animals which are employed for drawing or carrying load.

    Ruminant. An animals which chews its cud such as cow, sheep, goat.

    Domestic animals. Horse, dog, cow, buffalo.

    Edible birds. Duck, patridge, turkey, etc.


    Name                                                                           Place

    Atomic Power plants                                         Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rana Partap Sagar (Rajasthan), Kalapakkam (Tamil Nadu)

    Atomic Reactor                                                 Trombay (Maharashtra)

    Artificial Limb Centre                                       Pune (Maharashtra)

    Air Force Flying College                                   Jodhpur (Rajasthan)

    Atomic Energy Research Institute                      Hyderabad (A.P)

    Birla Planetarium                                              Bombay (Mumbai)

    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany                Lucknow (U.P)

    Bharat Electronics Ltd.                                      Jalahall (Bangalore)

    Central Electronic Engineering Institute             Pilani (Rajasthan)

    Central Drug Research Institute                         Lucknow (U.P)

    Central Road Research Institute                         New Delhi.

    Central Salt Research Institute                           Bhavnagar

    Central Glass and Ceramics Institute                  Jadaavpur (W.B)

    Central Tobacco Research Institute                    Guntoor (A.P)

    Central Building Research Institute                    Roorkee (U.P)

    Central Food Technological Research Institute   Madras(Chennai)

    Central Arid Zone Research Institute                 Jodhpur (Rajasthan)

    Central Coconut research institute                     Ernakulam (Kerala)

    Central Sanskrit Institute                                   Tirupati(A.P)

    Currency Printing Press                                     Nasik

    Central Scientific Instruments Organisation        Delhi, Gulmarg (Kashmir)

    Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI)            Shimla(H.P.)

    Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research       New Delhi

    (CSIR) (Pusa Institute)

    Central Jute Technology Research Institute        Calcutta

    Cosmic Research Laboratory                             Calcutta

    Defence Services Staff College                          Wellington (T. Nadu)

    D.D.T. Factory                                                  New Delhi

    Forest Research Institute                                   Dehradun (UP.), Coimbatore (T. Nadu)

    Film Institute of India                                        Pune (Maharashtra)

    Haffkine Institute                                             Bombay

    Hindustan Aircraft Factory                                Bangalore

    Hindustan Antibiotics                                       Pimpri (Maharashtra) Rishikesh (U.P.)

    Hindustan Shipyard Ltd.                                    Vishakhputnam (A.P.)

    Himalayan Mountaineering Institute                  Darjeeling (W.B)

    Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.                            Bhopal (M.P)

    Hindustan Aluminium Corporation                    Ranchi (Bihar)

    Heavy Vehicles and Tank Factory                      Avadi (Tamil Nadu)

    Hindustan Motors Ltd.                                      Uttarpara (Cal.)

    Hindustan Machine Tolls (H.M.T)                     Jalahali (Bangalore), Pinjore (Haryana), Hyderabad (A.P)

    Indian Agricultural Research Institute                New Delhi

    Indian Institute of Petroleum                             Dehradun (U.P)

    Indian Institute of Science                                 Bangalore (Mysore)

    Indian School of Mines and Applied Geology     Dhanbad (Bihar)

    Indian Institute of Management                         Calcutta

    Indian Institute of Philosophy                            Amainer

    Indian Lac Research Institute                            Ranchi (Bihar)

    Integral Coach Factory                                      Perambur (T.Nadu)

    Indian Rare Earth Factory                                  Alwaye (kerala)

    Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology             Pune

    Indian Standards Institute                                  New Delhi

    Indian Cancer Research Station                         Bombay (Mumbai)

    Locomotive Factories                                        Chitaranjan (W.Bengal), Varanasi (U.P.), Jamshedpur (Bihar)

    MIG Factory (Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.)        Ozar-Nasik (Maharashtra) Korapot (Orissa), Hyderabad (A.P)

    National Geophysical Research Institute            Hyderabad (A.P)

    National Sugar Institute                                    Calcutta

    National Defence Academy                               Khadakvasla (Maharashtra)

    National Defence College                                  New Delhi

    National Botanical Research Institute                (N.B.R.I),Lucknow (U.P)

    National Instruments Ltd.                                  Calcutta

    National Institute of Foundary & Forge              Ranchi(Bihar)


    National Research Institute                               Hyderabad (A.P)

    National Archieves of India                               New Delhi

    National Academy of Administation                  Mussorie(U.R)

    National Dairy Research Institute                      Karnal (Haryana)

    National Institute of Oceanography                    New Delhi

    Newsprint Factory                                             Nepanagar (M.P.)

    National Chemical Laboratory                           Pune

    National Physical Laboratory                             New Delhi

    National Metallurgical Institute                         Jamshedpur (Bihar)

    Oil Refineries (Public Sector)                            Barauni (Bihar), Noonmati (Assam), Koyali (Gujarat), Cochin (Kerala, Madra (T.N.), Mathura (U.P), Trombay (Maharashtra), Vishakhapatnam (A.P.) Digboi (Assam)

    Public Health Engineering Research Institute     Nagpur (Maharashtra)

    Regional Research Laboratory                           Jammu

    School of Tropical Medicine                              Calcutta

    Solar Physics Laboratory                                   Kodaikanal (T.Nadu)

    Scientific Precision Instruments Institute            Chandigarh

    Sugarcane Research Institute                             Coimbatore(T.Nadu)

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research              Bombay (Mumbai)

    Telephone Cable Industry                                  Rupnarainpur

    Telephone Industry                                           Bangalore

    Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute                       Delhi


    Altimeter – It is an instrument used in aircrafts for measuring the altitude.

    Ammeter – It is used to measure the strength of electric current in amperes.

    Binocular, Prism – It is an instrument for seeing the distant objects more distinctly. It has a high

    magnifying power and covers a much wider field of view than the ordinary binocular.

    Burette – It is graduated glass pipe with a tap used for measuring the volume of liquid run out of it. It is used in Volumetric analysis.

    Barometer – This is an instrument for measuring the atmospheric pressure. This was invented by Torricelli.

    Cardiograph – It is an instrument for tracing the movement of the heart.

    Clinical Thermometer – This is a thermometer used for measuring temperature of human body. The normal temperature of human body is 97.4°F. For measuring temperature, it is kept in armpit or below the tongue of a person.

    Computers – These are data processing machines, which shift the information according to requirements.

    Davy’s Safety Lamp – It is an ordinary lamp, the flame of which is surrounded by wire gauze of iron or copper. It is used in mines to prevent explosion. The heat of the flame being conducted by wire gauze, the gas outside is kept below ignition point. It was invented by Sir Humphreys Davy.

    Dictaphone – It is an electrically operated sound recording machine in big offices. Anything dictated into it can later be transcribed by the Stenographer.

    Dynamo – It is an instrument used for converting mechanical energy into electric energy.

    Galvanometer – It is an instrument for detecting feeble currents.

    Geiger Counter – It is an instrument used to measure radio activity.

    Hydrometer – It is an instrument for determining the specific gravity of liquids.

    Lightening Conductor – It is a device, used to protect tall buildings from the destructive effects of lightning.

    Nuclear Reactor – It is an atomic furnace, wherein nuclear fission takes place. It is employed for manufacture of radio isotopes and also for carrying on research for the peaceful uses of atomic energy.

    Oscillograph – It is an instrument for recording electrical or mechanical vibrations.

    Pipette – It is a glass tube with the aid of which a definite volume of liquid may be transferred.

    Pressure Cooker – It is an instrument which raises the boiling point of water and thus reduces the time of cooking. Hence it makes cooking quicker.

    Rocket – It is a metal case that can be projected to any height or distance by the force of explosive it contains.

    Radar –  It is an instrument to detect the presence of enemy aircraft, submarine, etc. and also to determine its direction, distance arid speed.

    Stethoscope – It is a sound magnifying instrument and used by doctors for listening to the sounds produced by the heart and the lungs. It was invented by leennec.

    Teleprinter – It is the transmission of images of moving objects by radio.

    Transistor – Si is an electrical amplifier and detector using low power.

    Voltmeter – It is an instrument to measure the potential difference across two points of an electrical circuit.


    Astrology – Art of Prediction by judging the effect of heavenly bodies on the destiny of man.

    Acupuncture – It is a Chinese technique of the repeated insertion of needles.

    Automation – Science of automatic machinery.

    Ballistics – Science of launching projectiles into space.

    Cybernetics – Science of automatic control by machinery.

    Ceramics – Art of pottery.

    Demography – Statistics of birth, diseases, illustrating conditions of community.

    Entomology – Study of insects.

    Ethnology – Science of races and their relation to one another and their characteristics.

    Electronics – The study that deals with the use of electrons emitted from solids and liquids.

    Gynaecology – The branch of medicine that is connected with women’s diseases.

    Geo-chemistry – Study of chemical composition of earth’s crust.

    Genetics – The Study of heredity of individuals.

    Hotriculture – Art of garden cultivation.

    Meteorology – Science of weather and climate.

    Numismatics – Study of coins or coinage.

    Ornithology – Scientific study of birds, their habits, etc.

    Philately – Art of stamp collecting.

    Pedagogy – Science of teaching.

    Penology – Science of punishment and prison reform.



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