29th July: The Hindu Extra Explanation

Demonize: portray as wicked and threatening.

About Mamallapuram

  • Mamallapuram, also called Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas, is a town that lies along the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, 60 km south of Chennai.
  • The town’s religious centre was founded by a 7th-century Hindu Pallava King—Narasimhavarman, also known as Mamalla—for whom the town was named.
  • It contains many surviving 7th– and 8th-century Pallava temples and monuments, chief of which are the sculptured rock relief popularly known as “Arjuna’s Penance,” or “Descent of the Ganges,” a series of sculptured cave temples, and a Shiva temple on the seashore.
  • The town’s Five Rathas, or monolithic temples, are the remnants of seven temples, for which the town was known as Seven Pagodas. The entire assemblage collectively was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984.
  • The prestigious competition, which has been organized since 1927, is being hosted in India for the first time and in Asia after 30 years.
  • With 189 countries participating, this will be the largest participation in any Chess Olympiad.

What is FIDE?

  • The International Chess Federation (FIDE) is the governing body of the sport of chess, and it regulates all international chess competitions.
  • It’s constituted as a non-governmental institution.
  • It was recognized by the International Olympic Committee as a Global Sporting Organization in 1999.
  • FIDE currently has its headquarters in Lausanne (Switzerland), but it was initially founded in 1924 in Paris under the motto “Gens Una Sumus” (Latin for “We are one Family”).

Chess was invented in India around the 8th century. Then it was known as chatrang, and changed over the centuries by the Arabs, Persians and then ultimately the medieval Europeans, who changed the pieces’ names and appearances to resemble the English court

The Korean War (also known by other names) was fought between North Korea and South Korea from 1950 to 1953. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following clashes along the border and rebellions in South Korea North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union while South Korea was supported by the United Nations, principally the United States. The fighting ended with an armistice on 27 July 1953.

n the early 2010s, the Arab Spring was a wave of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that swept across much of the Arab world. It began with protests in Tunisia in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living. Social media has played a key role in the rapid spread of revolution around the world, as new protests emerge in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries around the world, 

• The ‘Tunisian Revolution’ spread like wildfire to five other countries: Libya, Yemen, Egypt, Bahrain, and Syria, where the regimes were overthrown or major uprisings or social violence, such as riots, civil wars, mass murdering, or insurgencies, occurred.

• Demonstration took place in the countries like Morocco, Iraq, Algeria, Iran’s Khuzestan, Lebanon, Jordan, Oman, Sudan, and Kuwait.


• The self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old street vendor protesting his treatment by local officials, sparked the first protests in central Tunisia in December 2010.

• A protest movement known as the “Jasmine Revolution” quickly spread across the country. Tunisia’s government tried to put an end to the unrest by using violence against street protests and making political and economic concessions.

• However, the country’s security forces were quickly overwhelmed by protests, forcing President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali to resign and flee the country on January 14, 2011.

• Tunisians voted in a free election in October 2011 to elect members of a council tasked with drafting a new constitution.

• In December 2011, a democratically elected president and prime minister took office, and in January 2014, a new constitution was promulgated.

• Tunisia became the first country affected by the Arab Spring protests to have a peaceful transfer of power from one democratically elected government to another in October–November 2019.

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